Saturday, August 24, 2019

Census research Koreans in LA Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Census Koreans in LA - Research Proposal Example This population continues to enlarge since the historic immigration into Bunker Hill two decades in the wake of the 20th century (Theme 98). Bunker Hill is in present-day Los Angeles. Then, this region was designated for non-whites and ethnic minorities were allowed to reside during the first two decades of the century. Earliest Korean immigrants into the US had domestic and casual jobs, which involved hard labor in manufacturing and other operating plants. The Korean community migrated into geographical territory covering the region from Vermont Streets and Normandie. This area is the present-day Korea Town, California. By the 1950s, Los Angeles received the second wave of ethnic Korean immigrants from the Korean War. This population combined with the descendants of the first-wave immigration influx of the 1900s and the demographics began to soar amid rising birth rates and continued intermarriage interaction with other races. Most of the Korean population worked as truck drivers, waiters, and domestic workers for most of the 20th century (Gives 87). Present demographic statistics indicates that Korean Americans living in California account for 18.5 % of the entire ethnic Korean demographic in the United States (Min 67). Los Angeles County is home to over half a million ethnic Korean – demographic includes intermarried and those of interracial

Friday, August 23, 2019

3three Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

3three - Case Study Example The student has spelling mistakes and grammatical error in the written response. The error is as a result of mixture of Spanish language and English. She does not know how to differentiate the correct English word from other Spanish language. The other issue is oral presentation among the group’s members. She speaks English that is mixtures of different languages which her fellow students could not understand even the teacher. Sentence construction also was a problem. She does not follow the order, she starts from any word. The words are not in a logical sequence which disobeys the order of grammar and sentence construction. The instructional strategy that could be challenging to the student is group discussion. The student could not interact with other student because of her oral presentation. She could not comprehend and give meaning as she interacted with other class member. The student could not interact with other students because of the difficulty in language. Interaction involves communication between and among the students. If she could not speak fluent English, others could not understand her. Group discussion becomes lively and appreciative if the entire student can speak and understand each other. The student could express herself but not fully because of inadequate vocabularies among her friends. The group discussion a strategy toward the student could be adjusted in order to accommodate the students. Before involvement in the group, the student could be taken through English vocabularies and how to arrange the sentence that could be used to guide the students before the group discussion. Close interaction with other students would give the student another opportunity to learn new language. Intensified written work would help to support. Learning vocabularies, written presentation and close interaction would give the student the opportunity to learn new ideas and words that would help her in interacting with other students

Thursday, August 22, 2019

My opinion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

My opinion - Essay Example By looking at this, the shifting trends of competitive analysis and the sustainability of the organizations have also been possible. I think that the concept of people management and its role in the sustainability and competitiveness of the organization is directly proportional to one another. The example of Southwest airline mentioned in the article clearly suggests that despite of having the best rates of its stock, the company did not achieve success and growth; while, in the later years, it achieved competitive advantage by successfully competing in the industry with the help of its efficient labor force. The example of Nordstrom also suggests that the favorable employee compensation and benefits schemes led the store to success. The factors such as employment security, selectivity in recruiting, high wages, incentive pay, employee ownership, participation and empowerment, and their training and development contribute to the organization big time. I think that, besides the moneta ry benefits, even non monetary enhancements such as promotions and autonomy also helps enriching the employee’s morale.

Determination of the molar volume of hydrogen gas Essay Example for Free

Determination of the molar volume of hydrogen gas Essay Introduction We are going to determine the molar volume of hydrogen gas by letting known amount of magnesium react with dilute hydrochloric acid and carefully collecting the gas formed. Materials Gas syringe Hydrochloric acid, 2-molar 8 cm of magnesium ribbon Ruler Emery cloth For details see instruction form Methods We connect the equipment according to the diagram and make sure we follow the instructions carefully, and then we weigh the 8 cm of magnesium ribbon and pour the HCl into the test tube. As we are ready to start the experiment we fold the mg ribbon on the hook and put the stopper into the test tube so that when we tilt the test tube the mg ribbon can easily fall into the acid. It is important to wait for the reaction to finish completely so that the equipment returns back to room temperature. For details see instruction form. Results: Measured weigh of 8 cm mg ribbon: 0.068 g (uncertainty is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.0001) Room temperature: 21.9 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C (uncertainty is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.1) Room pressure: 742.5 mmHg Vapour pressure of water: 19.587 and 19.827 Vapour pressure: 19.587 + 19.827 / 2 = 19.707 1.333 x 102 x (mmHg) = Pa Convert the room pressure in mmHg into Pa: 742.5 x 1.333 x 102 = 98975.25 Pa Convert the vapour pressure of water into Pa: 19707 x 1.333 x 102 = 2626.9431 p(H2O) = 2626.9431 Pa Room pressure (Pa) Vapour pressure of water (Pa) 98975.25 Pa 2626.9431 Pa = 96348.3069 Pa p(H2) = 96348.3069 Pa p(H2) + p(H2O) = p(room) 2626.9431 + 96348.3069 = 98975.25 p(room) Calculation of molar volume for hydrogen gas at 0 C and 1 atmosphere P1 x V1 / T1 = P2 + V2 / T2 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 P1 = 96348.3069 P2 = 1 atm = 101300 V1 = 70 cm3 (uncertainty is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1) V2 = 59cm3 (uncertainty is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.5) T1 = 21.9 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C = 294.9 K (uncertainty is à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1.3466 ) T2 = 0 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C = 273 K 96348.3069 x 70 x 1 / 294.9 = 101300 x 59 x 0.5 / 273 Conclusion Evaluation: Our conclusion is that the molar volume of hydrogen gas at 0 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C and 1 atmosphere is -. We reached the conclusion by first checking the room temperature and barometer pressure. Then we looked up the values for vapour pressure of water at the actual temperature from the Hand book of Chemistry and Physics. The full reference is: Chemistry for the IB diploloma G. Neuss. Oxford UP, 2001 p.28.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Sudanese Islamic Banking System Commerce Essay

Sudanese Islamic Banking System Commerce Essay The last thirty years have witnessed the appearance and rapid expansion of Islamic banking in Sudan as Islamic country and outside of Islamic countries. Islamic banks provide product and services that do not contravene with Islamic law and human conduct. The Islamic principles claim the Islamic banks to operate give an important role to social issues and developing economy as the hole. The history of banking in Sudan started in 1903 which the first bank operated in Sudan was the national bank of Egypt in 1903 and plays the role of central bank in Sudan up to 1956, and followed by Barclays bank in 1913. The central bank of Sudan established in February 1960, which it drive the appearance of banking in Sudan, and during the period from 1962 to 1969 a numbers of domestic banks are established, and after that followed by a numbers of foreign banks and branches were allowed to operate such as Abu-Dhabi bank in 1976 and City bank in 1978. The year 1978 had witnessed the establishment of first Islamic bank in the Sudan that was Fisal Islamic bank, marked the first step to Islamise all Sudanese banks later, after that the success of Fisal Islamic bank during this period led to appear a number of Islamic banks such as Tadamon Islamic bank, the Sudanese Islamic bank, the Islamic Cooperative development bank and Al-baraka bank, all these banks succeeded to attracting more dep ositors, and hence, more branches were opened over all stat of Sudan. In 1983 the government applied Shariah rules on all transaction that lead to Islimisation all banks and prohibited receiving or paying interest. In addition, during the period from 1985 to 1988 the new government issuing rules to open conventional banks; however it led to conflict between Islamic banks and conventional banks and this period characterised such as increase the private banks in banking market. Moreover, there are many irregularities and lack of interest by the competent authorities, causing a shake-up the Sudanese banking system has suffered and dropped, that refer to the following reasons: Firstly, has not received the decision with interest the responsible authorities and its implementation and follow-up of the Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Central Bank of Sudan and senior management of the banks at that time. Secondly, let each bank to the Islamisation of how to see without assistance and follow-up by Jurisdiction. Thirdly, the lack of staff trained and familiar with the nature of Islamic banking in the State-owned banks that have been converted to Islam about a dozen banks that any significant number. Finally, the survival of conventional bank personnel to overseeing the investment status in the main departments of investment banks branches of government. Available on Central Bank of Sudan (2010) In 1992 the new government issued a more comprehensive law which envisioned an economy-wide Islamisation of the financial system including the government sector. Now all working banks are using Islamic modes of finance in all transactions. An important development worth mentioning is the attempt being made to eliminate interest from the government sector also. This led to increase the number of banks operating on the basis of Islamic mode of finance from 6 Islamic banks in 1980 to 29 in 1997 and to 33 in 2010. Also in this period a number of banks are merged such as government banks, and some foreign banks are terminated such as City bank. It can be in this report concerning on the last twenty years to explain and describe the structure and the type of business perform by Islamic banking in Sudan, also describe the main features of Islamic banking in Sudan. Iqbal and Molyneux (2004) Characteristic and Objectives of Islamic Banking in Sudan: The main characteristic and objectives of Sudanese Islamic banking system was revolve around sex elements which are explained in the following: Firstly, Islamic finance involves a system of equity sharing and stake-taking. It works by the principle of a variable return depending on the real productivity and how well the project performs. Therefore, Islamic principle remains of equity, reward and risk sharing unlike the conventional concept. Secondly, Sudanese Islamic banking plays important role in the economy, which is to an extent a revolutionary development as it calls for new approach to the economy. Islam needs the economy; its most important monetary and business dealings, to change away from debt-based partnership to an equity based and stake taking relationship. While the   some debt-based transactions will still exist in the Islamic bank but it will be based on the principle of Quard Hason (take for special case fore specific reason and guaranteed by equal amount deposited in investment account. e. g. if some company deposit large amount in investment account for one year and after 8 months need some amount for tw o months, then will take Quard Hasan for two months based on deposit amount in the investment account because it enable the company to gain the profit for this amount for two months which it can be provide the balance of investment account as guarantee to the bank). The overall purpose of the economy will be arranged towards equity based and risk sharing. Thirdly, in the Islamic mode ethics will play a key role. The ethical and social size will be essential to all economic activities, there will exist structure of Halal (permissible) and Haram (prohibited) within which all economic activity, private and public, has to be taken in place. The ethical issue will work at different levels and therefore morals will effect to the conscience of the entrepreneur and the firm, the society, the legal structure and the supervisory of the state. However, Islamic banks activities which would be treated the capitalist in Halal productivity and avoid gambling, prostitution, the promotion of alcohol , and any Haram productivity. Therefore social and ethical will be part of the Islamic economic system, and then all bank transaction will be made based on Shariha law and Islamic norms. Fifthly, the government of Sudan encourage the Islamic banking is entrepreneurial driven to directed for all not just towards financial expansion but also towards physical expansion of economic production and services. In the Islamic economy money will not produce money; it is expected to finance talent, innovation and new ideas, skills and opportunities. Whereas, conventional banking operates predominantly on the basis of financial collateral, therefore the more money you have, the more you can get. This means that the viability of a project mainly depends on the financial worth of the borrower; meaning that low collateral can reduce the chance of getting a loan, even if the project is viable and the person has impeccable character. Whereas, in the Islamic system collateral is not ignored but it is reduced, through the trustworthiness of the person, the viability and usefulness of the project; which is more important then the financial worth of the borrower. This means in the Islamic system greater emphasise is placed on human needs such as fair distribution, equity, community and individual development. Therefore, Islamic banking is more oriented towards the community, talent and entrepreneurship in Sudan to improve the individual income as specific objective and develops GDP as general objective. Finally, the Islamic system is non-inflationary; this is a very important and fundamental aspect of Islamic banking because the rate of inflation in Sudan slightly stable during last twenty years based on developed banking sector. The linkage between financial expansion, money supply and the physical expansion of the economy is a result of the financial and banking dynamics of the current time, however, the Islamic banking and finance restores the balance between these three variab les. Stability in the value of money is a primary goal of an Islamic economy. Therefore all economic sectors are developed because Islamic banking helps to allocate resources between all sectors. Finally, provide financial services such as open accounts, transfer money, collecting checks, deposit and debit, and etc to the customers, Abdullah Hawiad (2008). The Operation ofIslamic Banks in Sudan: All Islamic banks in Sudan operate similar to conventional banks by providing three types of accounts; current accounts, saving accounts and investment accounts, in current accounts Islamic banks and conventional banks provide check book and take a fee and in saving account not take a fee and also not offer to holders of saving accounts profit but take permission of the account holder to use his funds in other business activities but this principal is guaranteed, today some banks offer saving account as current account to attractive the depositors in the market. In the investment account Sudanese Islamic bank are different from conventional and others Islamic banks in others countries by providing profit to the lender in the end of year and this profit is determined in the end of year because the banks take a money as modareb and not determine the percentage of profit because it depend on the all profit at the end of year, and also the investors agree in advance to share the profit a nd loss in a given proportion with the bank, but her the banks attractive the investors based on the percentage of profit divided to the investors in the previous year which how banks offer high percentage will gain a large amount from investors in the future. Therefore, Sudanese Islamic banks are similar to Islamic banks in any Muslim countries but the main idea in Sudanese Islamic banking structure is to in corporate the classical mudarabah into   a modern complex system in order to an interest-free banking system . The function of Sudanese Islamic bank can be explaining the structure of Islamic bank, the Islamic bank collect the funds from their investors is called Rab-al-mal, the Islamic bank is Mudareb (intermediary part or agent) which is transfer the funds to entrepreneurs based on Islamic modes of finance like murabaha, mudarabah, musharaka, bai-al-salam,muqawala, muzarah, and istisna, which the banks share the profit between the bank and the holders of investment accounts . . Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005) Structure and Size of IslamicBanking in Sudan: The remarkable change in Sudanese Islamic banking industry in the last two decades there are an improvement in the performance of Sudanese Islamic banks due to improving in the infrastructure, stable the economic policies, the best distribution of income and resource among different economic sectors and end of the civil war in Sudan. According to these factors Islamic banks in Sudan grow rapidly in terms of assets and deposits size and have maintained considerable profit level as shown by the represented balance sheets and income statements. In addition, the accounting published data show the contribution of these banks in full filling their social responsibility and in the reduction of poverty in Sudan as reflecting by the distribution of large amount of Zakah to the poor and needy people, also the government establish family banks which is specialist to provide finance to the talent, innovation and producers family. Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005). Sudanese Islamic banking structure are grouped depend on economic sectors which are any groups are specialist to provide financial service for specific sector based on specific mode or instrument of Islamic finance. However, the authorized banks operating in Sudan is 33 banks which are grouped in two types commercial banks, so it represents 83% from all banking and which are include 2 banks are state-owned banks, 21 are joint banks and 4 are foreign banks branches. The second type is specialized banks, which it represents 17% in banking sector and also involves 5 banks are state-owned banks, which include industry development bank, will offer finance to industry sectors (long-term finance), Sudanese agricultural bank, so its large bank because agriculture represent a large sector in the economy, and Savings and Social Development Bank, and Family bank which is provide finance to producers family to improve individual income. In addition, Investment Bank is joint bank and specialized to issuing Sukuk in stock market and collect funds from lenders and invest these funds by them self in investment project without lending for a third party, (i.e. sharing between public, government and foreign). Available on Sudan Financial Times (2008). Therefore Sudanese Islamic banks have mainly applied five modes of finance in their financial instruments which are Murabaha, Musharaka, Mudaraba, Salam and Muqaula, it can be explained in the following figures:- Murabaha: Murabaha is referred to particular kind of sell, where the banks   where the banks acquired the commodity and sell it to another client at profit margin or mark-up expressly disclosing to the purchaser the cost price that he has paid for the commodity. Murabaha represent the main mode of finance in Sudanese Islamic banking and all commercial banks depend on this contract in finance because it provide large profit margin for the banks in short periods therefore the central bank of Sudan restricted this mode to be invested by all banks in 30% of all their investments operations and the maximum profit margin for this mode not greater than 9% per annum. The other reason to restrict Murabaha because the need of allocate resource during all economic sectors by the central bank. Available on Central bank of Sudan policies Musharaka:Musharaka consist more than 50% of total finance because it use to finance in different sectors especially in industry sectors because it needs long term finance and also central bank take each banks option to determine the percentage and margin of Musharaka profit and sharing. Mudaraba:Mudaraba is mainly applied investment bank because it specialized to collect money from depositors and invest this funds directly without lending to third party and also investment bank specialized to issuing Sukuk in stock market because it issued based on Mudaraba only in Sudanese stock market on the other hand the central bank take the investment bank option to determine the share of Mudarib in the realized profit in the end of project investment and then the investment bank offering the depositors more profit than other commercial banks to attract more funds from investors. Other mode of finance:The other modes of finance include Salam, Muqaula and Istisna, the central bank encourages all banks to diversify the finance among different modes to reduce the risk and maximize profit. Salam is very useful mode of finance applied by agriculture bank and family bank to improve the agriculture sectors and improve the individual income and this mode of finance is supported by the central bank to finance customers without any collateral in the sectors of social and agriculture. Muqaula use to finance the real estate sectors and also istisna use to finance industry sectors this two modes of finance used by all commercial banks in Sudan, therefore, all domestic commercial banks established business units to compete the market and diversify the business and finance to maximize the profit and minimize the risk such as, Faisal Islamic bank (Sudan) established Takaful company, the real estate company and stock company to trade in Sukuk market. . Available on Sudan Fina ncial Times (2008). Foreign banks size and performance: The foreign banks represent 12% from all Sudanese Islamic banks and attractive most of export and import finance which are applying different modes of Islamic finance because Sudan are suffering from scarcity of foreign currency due to the international ban and government ideology and foreign policy. Then foreign banks in Sudan play the significant rule to develop the export and import sectors by offering finance to issuing letter of credit and letter of grantee for all international transactions therefore it will drive the foreign market because it provide finance and service at low cost. Available on central bank of Sudan. Conclusion: Today Sudanese Islamic banking sector are grow rapidly and more successful in the last twenty years and successful to improve the economy in the all sectors. In the other hand, according to the technology development all Sudanese banks are linked by network which it enable them to provide clearing house service, ATM service, Internet service and point of sale service, however, the degree of competition in banking sector is very high because some banks use the IT as barriers to block the potential banks to enter the market and use IT to compete the current market because the degree of completion increase after Sudan export petroleum and also large foreign bank need to enter banking market to finance long-term finance and compete the foreign currencies and letter of credit finance because it provide high profit to the banks. On the other side after ending the civil war and peace agreement in 2005 the central bank allowed conventional banks to start working in southern Sudan as its been mentioned in the conditions of the peace agreement but there are no literature of data available about the banks in southern Sudan because it established recently in 2008. Reference: The Central Bank of Sudan Policies, available on   last accessed 07.04.2010. Thirty Years of Islamic Banking: History, Performance and Prospects, Munawar Iqbal and Philip Molyneux (2004). Islamic Banking System, Islamic Banking Concept, Abdullah Hawiad(2008), available on, last accessed 08.04.2010. Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005) The Practice of Islamic Banking System in Sudan, available on last accessed 02.04.2010. Islamic Banking in the Sudan available on Sudan Financial Times (2008), last accessed 08.04.2010. Central bank polices, available on last accessed 09.04.2010. Banking and Financial Sectors, available on central bank of Sudan, last accessed 09.04.2010

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Is Sexual Orientation Genetic Sociology Essay

Is Sexual Orientation Genetic Sociology Essay In this modernised world sex and relationship plays an important role as sexuality is part of who we are as humans. Sexuality defines how we see ourselves and how we physically relate to others beyond having the ability to reproduce. Sexuality is made up of three components which include biological sex, gender identity, and social gender role. In a less brief context, biological sex is the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being a male or female, gender identity means the physiological sense of being a male or female and social gender role is the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behaviour (1). Sexual orientation is known as an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic and sexual attractions to men, women or both sexes besides also referring to a persons sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviours and memberships in a community of others who share those attractions which may or may not be evident in a persons appearance or behaviour. People may choose not to act on such feelings as having attractions to people of the same sex or opposite sex. For example, a bisexual who can be attracted to members of either sex may choose to have a one partner relationship with one gender, therefore, choosing not to act on the attraction of another gender (1). Three commonly recognized aspect of sexual orientation are heterosexuality, bisexuality, homosexuality and one uncommon aspect is asexuality which is when a person has no sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity. Therefore, sexual orientation differs from sexual behaviour in that it involves an individuals feelings and perception of their own sexuality. According to current scientific and professional understanding, the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence. These patterns of emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction may arise without any prior sexual experience. Heterosexuality is the attraction to individuals of the other gender which is the cultural normality for the behaviour of males and females. For example, males and females being attracted to individuals of the opposite sex. Bisexuality is the attraction to members of either gender, as an example a male having a sexual relationship with another male partner as well with a female partner. On the other hand, homosexuality can be defined as the attraction to members of the same gender, are not completely understood by scientists. Scientists have pondered the theory for many years that sexual preference is a learned behaviour that is developed during early childhood. There are many theories regarding how a particular sexual orientation develops. Some scientists share the view that sexual orientation is shaped at an early age through interactions of biological, psychological and social factors. Other psychologists, psychiatrists and mental health professionals agree that homosexuality may be genetically predetermined. Research over the past thirty-five years has determined that homosexuality is not an illness, mental disorder or emotional problem. Other objective research shows that homosexual orientation is not associated with emotional or social problems. Because sexual orientation develops in early adolescence, without any prior sexual experience, it is believed that it is not chosen. It has been reported that some people try diligently to change their sexual preference from homosexual to heterosexual with no success. For this reason, psychologists do not consider sexual orientation to be a conscious choice that can be voluntarily changed. An untrue stereotype about homosexuals is the belief that gay men have more of a tendency than heterosexual men to sexually molest children. There is no evidence of this. Instead, recent studies have shown that homosexual parents are quite capable of rearing developmentally secure children who are intelligent, as well as being psychologically well adjusted. There is no evidence that homosexual parents are less capable of parenting than heterosexual parents. Because therapy cannot change sexual orientation, it is important for society to become better educated about homosexuality, thus diminishing anti-gay prejudice. Accurate information for young people struggling with their own sexual identity is especially important. The belief that such information when given to young people will affect ones sexual orientation is not valid. The people who have the most positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians are those who say they know one or more gay persons well. For this reason, psychiatrists believe that discrimination against homosexuality is based on his or her lack of knowledge concerning gay people. Therefore, educating all people about sexual orientation and homosexuality is likely to diminish anti-gay prejudice. Homosexuality was once believed to be a mental illness, due to the unfortunate fact that mental health professionals furnished society with incorrect information. Most studies about homosexuals only involved gay men and lesbians who were in therapy. They were seeking help for their problems, just as straight men and women do. These studies, and the misunderstanding of homosexuality, seriously damaged the acceptance of gay men and lesbians. The theories of homosexuals by psychologists, psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, painted an untrue portrait of gay men and lesbians. This unfair portrayal directly attributed to the un-acceptance of homosexuals. In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association confirmed that homosexuals were not mentally ill, and it was not until two years later in 1975, that the American Psychological Association passed a resolution supporting this confirmation. Both associations urged all mental health professionals to help dispel the stigma of mental illness that had been associated with homosexual orientation. Since this original declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, this decision has been reaffirmed by additional research findings and by both associations. However, when one is reared to believe a certain way, it is not easy to change his or her opinion. Psychiatrists, psychologists and the Lord above could urge one to rethink a learned fact; however, to dispute a theory learned early in life is sometimes impossible. This unfair discrimination against homosexuals is an obstacle to their leading a normal, happy and productive life, which is the desire of gay men and lesbians, just as it is the desire of straight men and women. Research has shown a high rate of violence, as well as discrimination, against homosexuals. Just as it is with straight men, the more positive the gay male identity, the better ones mental health will become and the higher ones self-esteem will be. To accomplish this, the acceptance of gay men and lesbians as productive citizens, without prejudice, is necessary. Protection against violence and discrimination would not be necessary if one understood that gay men and lesbians are just like you and me; the only differ ence is their sexual preference. Most scientists today agree that sexual orientation is the result of a combination of environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors. In other words, there are many factors that contribute to a persons sexual orientation, and the factors may be different for different people. In other words, we intend to research in depth on each factor stated and how does it affect a persons sexual orientation then come to a conclusion if sexual orientation is genetic relating back to our topic. This is the prime objective of this project. To arrive at our objectives, we have to research about the other factors affecting sexual orientation. Therefore, we have divided each factor into 3 subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 will be a detailed explanation on how genetic factors contribute to sexual orientation. Chapter 3 consequently will be discussing on environmental and emotional factors in relation to sexual orientation. Besides that, Chapter 4 is on the role played by hormones in determining a persons sexual orientation. All these 3 chapters will be discussing sexual orientation on homosexuality and bisexuality. The final chapter will relate back to our main topic which is Is Sexual Orientation Genetic? A conclusion will be brought about based on the research, studies and evidences done on the previous 3 chapters. Chapter 2 : Genetic Factors Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types which is autosomes and sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes contain certain genetic traits link to a persons sex. It can be XX with phenotype female and XY with phenotype male. On the other hand, the autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information. Both autosomes and sex chromosomes act in the same way during cell division. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes of which 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosome giving a total of 46 per cell for one human. A persons sex is determined by the sex chromosome (wiki chromosome). Based on a research conducted by scientists on November 8th 2007, new evidences have been uncovered showing genetics has a role to play in determining whether an individual is homosexual or heterosexual. Dr. Sandra Witelson, a neuroscientist in the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University, and colleges at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto conducted the research on studies of the brains of healthy, right handed, 18 to 35- year old homosexual and heterosexual men using magnetic resonance imagining (MRI). About 10 years ago, which is now accepted as fact, studies have demonstrated that there is a higher proportion of left-handers in the homosexual population than the general population. Consequently, in other research it was found that left-handers have a larger region of the posterior corpus callosum which is the thick band of nerve fibres connecting the two hemispheres of the brain compared to the right- handers. Furthermore, the posterior part of the c orpus callosum is larger in homosexual than heterosexual men. The size of corpus callosum is largely inherited suggesting a genetic factor in sexual orientation. A correlational analysis by researchers which included size of the corpus callosum, and test scores on language, visual spatial and finger dexterity tests. Prediction on sexual orientation in 95 per cent of the cases was done by using all these variables. A report by the National Cancer Institute researchers states that the appearance that many homosexual men inherit a gene from their mothers that influences sexual orientation. It was suggested that inherited genetic factors at least play a role in determining sexual orientation. The studys lead author Dean Hamer, chief of the cancer institutes section on Gene Structure and regulation concluded that it is basically not a choice or a decision to be a gay. However, people have no control over the genes inherited and there is no way to change it. The family histories of 114 gay men were studied and it was found that more homosexual brothers, uncles and male cousins than would be expected in the general population whereby some families had three generations of homosexual relatives. It was suggested that something inherited was going on since the uncles and cousins were not raised in the same household but do share genetic information. Following up another studies was made on the DNA from 40 pairs of homosexual brothers and it was found that 33 of them shared same genetic markers on the X chromosome in a region known as Xq28. The X chromosomes are always inherited from mothers. Genes consist of tiny coils of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, which carries the instructions to manufacture a particular body substance. No such similar sharing was present in the same region among heterosexual men. It is expected that this region will be important for both heterosexual and homosexual development providing very small and subtle difference between the genes of each group. However, the finding does not explain all homosexuality. Seven out of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers studied did not have the common genetic factor. Part of the studies state that the cancer Kaposis sarcoma unusually afflicts large numbers of homosexuals. Further study is being conducted to determine whether a similar genetic link occurs in families of homosexual women hoping to identify the specific gene involved in sexual orientation. Gregory King, spokesman for the Human Rights Campaign Fund, a gay and lesbian activist group, said he hoped from the studies it would help Americans understand that most lesbian and gay people do not choose their sexual orientation. Despite, concerns are there among people who are lesbians and gay that this discovery will be misused to suggest that homosexuality is something that needs to be corrected. According to the variation in sexual orientation, heritability studies have differed on the precise contribution of genetics, though a few linkage studies have indicated a possible role for certain genes on the X chromosome. However, the strength of that evidence is limited due to the conflicting nature of the reports and small sample sizes. Some of the questions in relation to the possible genetic underpinnings of sexual orientation have been clarified by a more recent study conducted by the first ever genome-wide association study (GWAS) on sexual orientation. It is also in relation to the release of a web-based survey to the large 23andMe database of over 180,000 individuals. Furthermore, the other non-genetic phenotypes associated with sexual orientation are also explored. The objective is to understand the relationship between sexual orientation and non-genetic phenotypes as the data collected was extracted from dozens of 23andMe surveys taking into consideration thousands of conditions and trait. Research has shown that lesbians are more likely than heterosexual women to have alcoholism and alcohol-related problems (3). A number of studies have also found that women with same sex partners are more likely to have psychiatric disorders, including major depression (4) and men with same sex partners are more likely to have anxiety and mood disorders (5). Phenotype analyses were conducted using linear or logistic regression. In statistics, linear regression is the relationship between a scalar dependent variable Y and one or more explanatory variables denoted X as the data modelled using linear predictor functions, and unknown model parameters are estimated from the data. Logistic regression is a type of analysis used to predict the outcome of a categorical dependent variable based on one or more predictor variables that is used in estimating empirical values of the parameters in a qualitative response model(wiki). The reported betas are the change on the sexual identity scale per unit of the other phenotype. Both the phenotype analyses and GWAS analyses controlled for age, the first five principal components, and attitudes towards homosexuality as collected in the Sexual Orientation Survey. GWAS analyses were conducted in individuals of European descent. The questions asked for this study to over 23,000 individuals 23andMe database is as follows: The survey counts based on the questions asked were as below: They have examined the correlation between sexual identity and ~1000 phenotypes already characterized in the 23andMe database through other surveys. These analyses were preliminary as outliers or confounders beyond what is listed in the methods were not checked. Previous  ¬Ã‚ ndings were replicated showing a positive association between lesbians and alcoholism, and between lesbians and gay men and several psychiatric conditions. Chapter 3 : Environmental and Emotional Factors On the development of human sexual orientation, another possible factor is the environmental and emotional influences. Many influences or factors lead to sexual orientation but no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Therefore, a great deal of people thinks nature and nurture both play complex roles (wiki environment sexual orientation). Environmental factors are associated with family influences. Evidence have been provided by researches that gay men report having had less loving and more rejecting fathers, and closer relationships with their mothers, than non-gay men. Some researchers think this may indicate that childhood family experiences are important determinants to homosexuality, or that parents behave this way in response to gender-variant traits in a child. Both possibilities might be true in different cases (wiki). Childhood factors do affect marital choices as children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families. In a broad point of view, heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships (a group of offspring having the same two parents) , and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. On the other hand, for women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood ( Consequently, parental sexual orientation may affect child development. Studies were focused on an early research on children with lesbian and gay parents in which the children had been born in the context of a heterosexual marriage. The developments among children of divorced lesbian mothers were compared with children of divorced heterosexual mothers and few significant differences were found. Children in the research who had been born into homes with married mothers and fathers have no obvious reasons to understand on their healthy development as the children faced early exposure to apparently heterosexual male and female role models which mainly contributes to the healthy development. In comparison, a study conducted by Charlotte J. Patterson from University of Virginia on lesbian or gay parents who rear infants and children from offspring and it is important that the children had never lived with heterosexual parents. The study was on a group of 4 to 9 year old children who had been born to or adopted early in life by lesbian mothers. Results from in-home interviews and also from questionnaires showed that children had regular contact with a wide range of adults of both genders, both within and outside of their families. The childrens self-concepts and preferences for same-gender playmates and activities were much like those of other children their ages. Moreover, standardized measures of social competence and of behaviour problems, such as those from the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), showed that they scored within the range of normal variation for a representative sample of same-aged American children. Therefore, it was clear from this study and others like it that it was quite possible for lesbian mothers to rear healthy children. Consistent with earlier findings, results from the study revealed few differences in adjustment between adolescents living with same-sex parents and those living with opposite-sex parents . There were no significant differences between teenagers living with same-sex parents and those living with other-sex parents on self-reported assessments of psychological well-being, such as self-esteem and anxiety, measures of school outcomes, such as grade point averages and trouble in school, or measures of family relationships, such as parental warmth and care from adults and peers. Adolescents in the two groups were equally likely to say that they had been involved in a romantic relationship in the last 18 months, and they were equally likely to report having engaged in sexual intercourse. The only statistically reliable difference between the two groups is that those with same-sex parents felt a greater sense of connection to people at school compared to the youngsters living with same-sex c ouples. There were no significant differences in self-reported substance use, delinquency, or peer victimization between those reared by same or other-sex couples. Although the gender of parents partners was not an important predictor of adolescent well-being, other aspects of family relationships were significantly associated with teenagers adjustment. Consistent with other findings about adolescent development, the qualities of family relationships rather than the gender of parents partners were consistently related to adolescent outcomes. Parents who reported having close relationships with their offspring had adolescents who reported more favourable adjustment. The fact that children of lesbian mothers generally develop in healthy ways should not be taken to suggest that no challenges were encountered. Many investigators have remarked upon the fact that children of lesbian and gay parents may encounter anti-gay sentiments in their daily lives. For example, in a study of 10- year-old children born to lesbian mothers, Gartrell, Deck, Rodas, Peyser, and Banks (2005) reported that a substantial minority had encountered anti-gay sentiments among their peers. Those who had such encounters were likely to report having felt angry, upset, or sad about these experiences. Children of lesbian and gay parents may be exposed to prejudice against their parents in some settings, and this may be painful for them, but evidence for the idea that such encounters affect childrens overall adjustment is lacking. Another study, published in the October 2006 issue of Archives of Sexual Behaviour, authored by Danish epidemiologist Morten Frisch and statistician Anders Hviid, reports the analysis of data from over two million men and women. It is the first study to examine an entire group of homosexuals for environmental factors in their decisions to marry homosexually. The research suggests a link between environmental factors such as geographic birthplace and family relationships and the probability of marrying a same-sex or opposite-sex partner. The massive study also finds that the number of brothers and sisters increases the probability of marrying heterosexually. This finding questions a recent, widely touted Canadian study of birth order that found the number of older brothers increased the probably of homosexuality in men. The researchers found for each additional year ones parents stay married, the probability of heterosexual marriage in the children increased by 1.6% among sons and 1.0% among daughters. In contrast, the rate of homosexual unions decreased by 1.8% among sons and 1.4% among daughters for every year of intact parental marriage. Summing these effects over years of childhood and adolescence contributes to a noteworthy impact. Regarding homosexual marriages, researchers have also found that birth place relates to the sexual orientation of marriage partner. Being born in urban settings increased the probability of homosexual marriage and decreased the probability of heterosexual marriage. This study was said to be the first to show that birth place or some correlate thereof influences marital choices in adulthood. The researchers also confirmed previous research suggesting that children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than children reared in intact families. For men, unknown paternal identity, parental divorce, short duration of cohabitation with both parents, and long duration of father-absent cohabitation with mother were all associated with increased rates of homosexual marriage. For women, homosexual marriage rates were elevated among women whose parents were married briefly, and those who experienced long periods of mother absence due either to abandonment or death during the teen years. Taken together, the studys findings suggest that intact parents bearing multiple children and living in rural areas increase the probability of heterosexual pairings in their children. The study was not designed to examine all possible contributions to sexual orientation nor does it account for individual situations. We know, for instance, that gays and straights come from all kinds of families and locations. However, the study raises the possibility that family and social factors function to help shape adult sexual orientation. Chapter 4: Hormonal Factors Hormones are your bodys chemical messengers. It is released by one or more cells which travel through the bloodstream that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In relation to sexuality following up the hormonal theory, exposure to certain hormones plays an act in fetal sex differentiation. Besides that, this exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Hormones which interact with the developing brain cells coming from the differences in brain structure are accredit to be the basis of sex differences in countless behaviour, including sexual orientation. The interaction of these hormones on the developing brain is affected by prenatal factors that can influence later the sex-typed behaviour in children. Factors hypothesized in contributing to sex-typed behaviour concerns the same as those hypothesized to contribute to sexual orientation. Higher rates of sex-atypical behaviour in childhood and adulthood are seen in homosexual men and women compared to the same sex heterosexuals. Early hormones have been suggested to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviours. Recent studies, however, have provided evidence in support of prenatal androgen exposure influencing childhood sex-typed behaviour. An example of the study is Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation. The hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are examined. The children were in the range of ages between 2.5 to 12 years. It is observed that CAH girls preferred boys toys and activities and had greater preference for boy playmates than controls. On the other hand, CAH boys did not differ significantly from controls and activity and playmate preferences were not related. From this it was concluded that early androgen has a major effect on childhood activity preferences but only a weak influence on playmate preferences. Besides that, sex segregation does not arise from sex-typed activity preferences, activity and playmate preferences may be differently predictive of sexual orientation and hormonal influences on sexual orientation are likely to be comp lex. Consequently, prospective and retrospective studies of childhood gender role behaviour reveal homosexual males to be more likely than heterosexual males in the sense of participating in girls games, to experiment with cosmetics and jewellery and to be less likely than heterosexual males to participate in sports. In the same way, lesbians analytical report shows that they were more likely than heterosexual females in the manner of participating in sports, to be called a tomboy and to be less likely than heterosexual females as in experimenting with or using cosmetics and jewellery or even to wear dresses. From reports by Bailey Zucker, it was also known that homosexual men and women played with opposite sex playmates in childhood more that did heterosexual men and women. However, the differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals may not be confined to childhood activities. For example, in another report by McCormick Witelson, it is stated that heterosexual men have higher spatial ability and lower verbal ability compared to both homosexual men and heterosexual women. Besides that, a higher rate of left-handedness has been noticed in both homosexual men and women than heterosexual comparisons. Nonetheless, it is important to note that there are a few other sex-typed behaviours not related to sexual orientation. This is identified as most homosexual men and women have typical gender identity and are similar to same sex heterosexual individuals on aspects of mating psychology related to sexual selection that show sex differences, for example, interest in uncommitted sex. These comparisons are useful because sexual orientation differences that parallel sex differences suggest that some of the factors that cause sex differences also cause differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals of the same sex. This is because some homosexual individuals are as sex-typical as most heterosexuals, there may be more than one cause of sexual orientation. On the other hand, when sexual orientation differences do not parallel sex differences, different etiologies are likely. Gonadal hormones have been hypothesized to play a main role in the development of sex-typed behaviour and sexual orientation. Thus, high levels of androgen during sensitive periods of development have been suggested to produce masculine-typical behaviour, including childhood activities, cognitive abilities, and sexual orientation directed to women, that is, male heterosexuality and female homosexuality, whereas very low levels of androgen during those periods are hypothesized to result in female typical childhood activities, cognitive abilities, and sexual orientation directed to men, that is, male homosexuality and female heterosexuality. Human sex-typed behaviour is also affected by early exposure to hormones. Thus, female participants with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who have high levels of androgen during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, have greater preference for traditionally masculine toys and activities, higher spatial ability, and greater rates of homosexual or bisexual fantasies than controls. Similarly, female participants exposed to high levels of masculinizing or defeminizing hormones as a result of maternal ingestion during pregnancy have been reported to be more aggressive and to have higher rates of homosexual or bisexual fantasies than controls. These increases in male typical behaviour which occur in the presence of female gender identity in both CAH girls and women and those with exogenous hormone exposure. Unusual hormone exposure in boys and men has complex relationships to behaviour. In relation, low androgen seems to result in reduced male typical behaviour. Male adolescents and adults with deficient androgen beginning early in life have shown reduced spatial ability compared with controls. High levels of masculinizing hormones have been associated with increased, decreased, and unchanged masculine typical behaviour. Male participants exposed to androgenizing progestin have been reported to be more aggressive than their brothers, but male participants with CAH and thus high levels of androgen generally show male typical behaviour. There are few systematic studies of sexual behaviour in men with unusual early hormone exposure, but homosexuality may be more common in men who are assumed to have low prenatal testosterone, for example, XXY men. There is evidence especially in female individuals that early hormone exposure affects both sexual orientation and some of the behaviors that are related to it, providing indirect support for the hypothesis that sexual orientation typically is influenced b

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Concept of Information :: Exploratory Research

The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics. Information may be considered as an universal property of matter (attributive concept) or as a property of self-managing (cybernetic) system (functional concept). Then we can not get a full understanding of information, universal and flexible enough. So it is necessary to widen and develop the definition of information. There are two basic ways of unification of any concept: a) abstracting, b) integration. The classical theory of information and cybernetics used the first - abstracting. It means the volume ("demanded place") expressed by the quantity of bites. It is a quantity of information. The semiotics used the second way. It means the sign system (sign), the unity of three attributes - syntactic, semantics and pragmatics. In this work integration (abstracting) concept of information is offered. For the final description, we said that information is consist of 1) object (attributive), 2) procedural (functional) and 3) morphological (structural) components. We must offer two definitions for further developing the concept of information. These are a message and a language. Language is a sign system with alphabet, vocabulary and grammar. Message is a definite construction in a definite language. Any language is an interface (means of interaction) between users (communication function) or between users and environment. Exchange of information is possible by plunge into definite surroundings - own language of this message. Any message is a set of signs without such a plunge. So information can not exist in "a pure state", without physical bearer. We also point out that information can exist as messages. Information may be extracted from messages. Thus we say object component is realized by messages, procedural component is realized by grammar, morphological is realized by material bearers. We may examine information as a unit with two components: object and procedural. Then we have a relation concept of information. It means a ratio between properties of the object, which consist of tables and charts. The second concept is a set of specific procedures. We may use a philosophical concept of information.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay -- William Shakespeare Ro

William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Although the story of Romeo and Juliet is over 500 years old, it is as relevant and appealing today as it was when first performed. Although dated, the story of Romeo and Juliet still holds great appeal and relevance to today’s society, despite the differences in morals and values between William Shakespeare’s audience 500 years ago, and Baz Luhrmann’s audience today. The arising issues of order and authority, fate and love entertain/ed and appeals/ed to both viewers in different ways. Shakespeare’s original play, Romeo and Juliet reflected the important Elizabethan concerns in relation to authority, law and order, making it relevant to the audiences’ morals and values of the time, as well appealing and entertaining. Shakespeare explored the consequences of order breaking down in society, demonstrated through many characters’ disobediences, with the result of chaos and ultimate consequence being the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. All characters were disobedient in some way, including Romeo and Juliet themselves. For instance, they both deceived their parents by getting married, Romeo killed Tybalt and Juliet faked death. Other characters, such as Tybalt, Mercutio, Montague and Capulet boys, went against the orders of the Prince by continuing violent actions in the city of Verona. The Friar and the Nurse are also guilty because they aided the young lovers’ immoderate actions - their meetings and marriage. Shakespeare offers the simple solution to this chaos as being obedient by respecting authority, law and order, being responsible with power as well as to be punished for their sins. This punishment is ultimately seen at the end of the play following the deaths of Romeo and Juliet. All characters have been hurt by this, hence being punished for their disobediences; â€Å"All are punished!† – the Prince. In this sense, Shakespeare’s play sets morals for the Elizabethan era, displaying the results of disobedience, violence and chaos. Luhrmann’s modern appropriation of the play also deals with authority, law and order, however instead of setting morals and offering solutions, it is relevant in that it displays a different viewpoint on modern society. He displays the world as being hectic and very fast, focused mainly on wealth and power, having lost sight of true values such as love, compassion and moral t... ... continuous, but particularly apparent in the use of water as a symbol of purity and harmony. During the ‘balcony’ scene, the water plays a major role in the connection between the lovers. It is a symbol of their unity and reciprocated love. This symbol of peace and harmony is then tainted by the death of Tybalt as he falls into a pond after being killed by Romeo. This scene also uses sequences of flashbacks to Romeo and Juliet in the pool, memories of the purity and cleanliness of Romeo’s conscience. It is then non-existent in the scenes of Romeo in the very dry, baron landscapes of Mantua. This symbolises the loss of his true love, and also any peace and harmony he knew before being banished. Other romantic symbolism in the film includes the extreme close-up shots of Romeo and Juliet when they are together, for example, in the tomb, repeated shots of the wedding ring – a physical symbol of their love. Together, Shakespeare’s original play and Baz Luhrmann’s modern appropriation is a relevant and appealing insight into the Elizabethan era as well as modern society. By comparing the two, it is made obvious the changes and differences in morals and values over 500 years.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Human impact on climate Essay

Abstract Climate change has long been a controversial issue among governments and world bodies. It is defined as the variation in the Earth’s global climate or in regional climates over time. These variations may be caused by a multitude of factors, some of which include geological changes within the Earth itself, changes in forces outside the earth, or human activity. When talking about this issue, two terms are often interchanged to refer to these variations in normal weather patterns, namely global warming and climate change. The two however, while similar, belong to different spectrums. This paper seeks to examine the role of human activities as a form of climate change. Overview Global warming simply pertains to the recent gradual warming of the temperature in different locations around the earth. Climate change, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), talks of variations in weather in general, but which are caused particularly by human activity. Although there have been steps taken towards curbing the destructive effects of climate change, there continues to still be a sense of apathy on the parts of some governments with regard to it. The continued burning of fossil fuels in power plants, vehicles and other machines are directly responsible for producing air particles that contribute to warming the earth’s atmosphere. The conversion of forests to farmland or real estate developments has also reduced the amount of trees overall, thus cutting down the chances of more trees mitigating the carbon levels in the air, as well as absorbing and acting as a natural control for floods. Effects of Climate Change Climate change will have many effects on the environment, some of them already visible while others are slowly already being experienced in different parts of the world. Currently, scientists project that the mean global temperature will rise about 3 degrees Celsius, assuming the amount of carbon dioxide in the air doubles due to continued use of fossil fuels. Another projection was the rising of the mean sea level by about 50 cm, a relatively significant rise in light of the fact that computer model estimates have shown that several low-lying states and countries may, in part or whole, be submerged by the rising water level. The warming of temperatures at the mid-continent levels, as well as those in higher latitudes, will also be greater as compared to other locations. It has therefore been predicted that a considerable amount of polar and glacial will melt, as well as the continued warming of the oceans. These two events will constitute for the most part the increase in water levels mentioned earlier. Also to be seriously affected is the ecosystem, along with the natural order of the environment. Due to the heat that would be generated, more tropical climates would be prevalent, thus the focus on migration as well as agricultural production and output would shift all over the world. For the wildlife, the changing ecosystems would directly affect their natural habitats and breeding places. As it is, researchers continue to forecast that global warming may cause the easier proliferation of disease due to the idea that disease-carrying insects and other animals may migrate to other locations due to the changing weather. The hydrologic cycle will also intensify, with changes in water supplies as well as weather seasons such as droughts and flood, which could then greatly affect crops and other natural sources of food. Lastly, the effects of climate change on the broad concept of international security cannot be discounted. With more poor countries potentially facing an environmental disaster of catastrophic proportions, masses of refugees could converge on those remaining industrialized and highly urbanized nations that remain only somewhat affected. Also, should fossil fuel use not be successfully curbed in time, the scarcity of it will only mean that nations who have remaining reserves will become more powerful and dominant in the world stage, with new influential nations possibly developing.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Literary Techniques Essay

Kate Chopin’s â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings† and â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† are both great stories. Both literature give readers the smooth and easy transition throughout the story, and then leave the readers with disappointing and jaw dropping details in the end. Both of Chopin’s stories portray typical women who have different wants and needs and emphasize their continued life struggles. In â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings,† fifteen dollars has been enough to bring Mrs. Sommers back to her past and enjoy the life she used to have. Although, the items that she has purchased  will stay with her, that does not change the fact that the moment she leaves the cable car she will have to go back to her family and face the life that she is trying to escape from. In Chopin’s story â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† Armand express his love for his wife Desiree, not displaying any signs racism. He made it clear that her unknown past does not matter to him. All of that changed the moment they had a son who show traces of African ancestry. Armand rejected Desiree, so the devastated young mother left L’Abri with her son and both of them were never have seen again. In both stories, the author uses many literary techniques to express how pride and selfishness can turn someone into a different person. Chopin’s symbolism is very rich in description and filled with hidden meanings, which makes both of the stories very extraordinary. The first part of the story makes clear about Mrs. Sommers love for her Family that has changed the moment she temporarily leaves her reality in order to live and feel her past. In this short story, Chopin presents the message clearly to her readers how much Mrs. Sommers wants to escape from reality. In â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings† the fifteen dollars she accumulates represents her â€Å"better days,† (2) which is the past life she has been missing. The silk stockings are used many times to symbolize luxuries, and the different 2 shades of stockings are made visible by Chopin to represent life pleasures, freedom, and happiness â€Å"some lavender, some all black† (2). Mrs. Sommers abandoning her present life is clear when Chopin makes the statement of exchanging â€Å"her cotton stockings† (2) to her â€Å"new silk ones† (2). In the story, author uses symbols significant on how the protagonist used to live  her life. She uses the â€Å"shabby old† (2) to describe her shopping bag, which resembles to her current life status. Gloves and high-priced magazines represent glamour where there are wide choices of â€Å"pleasant things,† (3). Mrs. Sommers realizes that her life before was better than what she thought it was. Narrator expresses the conclusion of what Mrs. Sommers thinks about her life before: â€Å"The damask was even more spotless than it had seemed† (4). Lastly, the cable car represents her ride towards her better days. Author sadly exposes the protagonists’ thoughts of  not wanting to return home, wishing for the cable car to never stop and keep going â€Å"go on and on with her forever† (5). All the symbolism in the story expresses Mrs. Sommers longing for her past life, her â€Å"better days† (1) which can be no longer part of her future. Chopin’s use of her symbols tried to give the readers the clearest message possible. The brilliant use of symbolism in â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† sends message to the readers about the sensitivity of the subject racism back in the days, when the story is set. Chopin uses colors to tell the story of the characters’ backgrounds. The Caucasian race was presented by the â€Å"yellow  nurse,† (2) and she use â€Å"La Blanche’s little quadroon boys† (3) to represent mixed race or bi-racial. L’Abri and Madame Valmonde are also used to symbolize human feelings and behavior. The L’Abri, is the plantation owned by Aubigny family. The L’Abri symbolizes sadness and Chopin elaborates that when Madame Valmonde visits Desiree and describes the plantation as â€Å"a sad looking place† (2), with lots of â€Å"solemn oaks† (2). Desiree’s mother, Madame Valmonde, is used to symbolize unconditional love. She asks her daughter to come home after all 3 the heartaches Armand is causing her. The story turns out that Armand’s mother has a dark  secret, and that Armand is the bi-racial one and not Desiree. Throughout the story, Chopin uses symbolism to communicate to readers and show how race can be a big issue and can change someone’s life in a snap during the latter nineteenth century. The author also uses foreshadowing and gave hints and clues in both of the stories. It creates suspense and makes the readers wonder what will the ending of the story can be. Chopin uses the first paragraph in â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings† to show some hints on what fifteen dollars can do to Mrs. Sommers. In this case, the author foreshadows the arrival of Mrs. Sommers in the store stating her exhaustion. However, the moment she realized that she is feeling the texture of the silk stockings, she describe it as â€Å"soft, sheeny luxurious things† (2) and â€Å"glide serpent-like through her fingers† (2). Chopin uses the description â€Å"serpent-like† (2) to hint temptation. This effectively foreshadows the actions presented by Mrs. Sommers in the story. Where, she falls for the temptation and end up buying luxurious things all for herself. In â€Å"Desiree’s Baby†, Chopin uses foreshadowing to give readers a clue about the hidden mystery of who is of biracial descent in the story. Chopin describes Desiree â€Å"in her soft white muslins and laces† (2) in her first appearance in the story. Another hint stated as â€Å"Desiree had not changed the thin white garment† (5), the color white foreshadows Desiree’s background. Clues reveals in the end of the story that Desiree is of white decent. However, the technique used to reveal Armand’s bloodline or history is the same with how the author reveals of Desiree’s. Chopin used â€Å"Armand’s dark, handsome face† (3), and â€Å"Look at my hand; whiter than yours, Armand,† (4) the foreshadowing in the story made it not a surprise when Armand read his  mother’s letter and discovered the truth behind his son’s questionable race, that he is bi-racial and not Desiree. 4 Both stories of Chopin sets up the conflicts of situations in the beginning, and irony is well present in the end. Both literatures leave the readers with great lesson to learn. Ironic situation is when Mrs. Sommers ponders for days if she would invest or spend the fifteen dollars, â€Å"she did not wish to act hastily, to do anything she might afterward regret† (1). That night, she decided to spend the money for her children, and even envision her kids to look nicely and  Ã¢â‚¬Å"dainty† (1). However, it is ironic that after she touches the silk stockings, she decided to give herself a treat and end up spending all her money on luxuries for herself, leaving nothing for her children. Another irony, when Chopin described the protagonist â€Å"Mrs. Sommers as was one who knew the value of bargains; who could stand for hours making her way inch by inch toward the desired object that was selling below cost,† (1) when in fact, Mrs. Sommers ended up buying nothing but expensive items. She never worry about the price and she purchase items quickly,  impulsively. However, in â€Å"Desiree’s Baby†, the irony is that throughout the story Armand is blind, not knowing his history and the family secret. Racism sets up the story to draw a jaw dropping details and give their readers a shocking ending. In the beginning of the story, race does not seem to matter to Armand. He accused Desiree of lying about her ancestry. After pushing his wife and son away, Armand discovers a letter that reveals his family background â€Å"that his mother, who adores him, belongs to the race that is cursed with the brand of slavery† (6). The detail about  Armand’s race is intentionally placed in the end of the story, Chopin finds that effective, where readers tend to feel hate and anger towards Armand for being prejudice. He blamed and pushed Desiree away, when he is the one with black race in his bloodline. The point of view differs, in how each of the stories is told. Chopin uses third-person limited omniscient in â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings,† so readers knows the thoughts and feelings of 5 Mrs. Sommers, but readers are not provided with details and thoughts of the other characters. Characters in the story whose thoughts are not provided: Waiter that served Mrs.  Sommers, Lady at the Theater, and the Man inside the cable car. However, In â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† Chopin uses third person point of view but reveals the thoughts and feelings of every character in the story, both Armand and Desiree. Chopin written some of Desiree’s feelings to know how exactly the young Mother feels â€Å"there was something in the air menacing her peace† (3) and â€Å"Desiree was miserable enough to die† (3). Both stories provided enough thoughts to give readers some details to analyze each characters feelings and dilemma. The theme of the story â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings† centers on how people become selfish  and self-centered. In â€Å"Desiree’s Baby,† the story shows how people are capable of doing evil things to gain power and freedom. Kate Chopin, who uses the literary techniques to help readers expose the mysteries hidden in each of her short stories. Author portray â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings† and â€Å"Desiree’s Baby† both beautifully. Both stories serves the reader’s moral lesson and of course surprising ending. Works cited Chopin, Kate. â€Å"A Pair of Silk Stockings. † Americanliterature. com. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Chopin, Kate. â€Å"Desiree’s Baby. † Americanliterature. com. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.   

Long Term Investment Decisions Essay

Long term capital decisions involve choosing how to finance long term projects. For a movie rental company, such decisions would include opening new shops in new markets or buying new machinery that would improve the firm’s technology. Before making such decisions, a firm has to do an analysis of the returns that the new project would bring against the cost outlay of the project. There are several ways of doing such an analysis. They include the payback period, net present value, internal rate of return among others. The main aim of conducting this analysis is to determine whether the expected returns meet a certain predetermined benchmark, usually higher than the risk free return. Rationale for government intervention The United States government intervenes in business processes in a number of ways; it has formulated regulation that governs the film distribution industry to ensure a level playing field, ensuring employee protection, protection of the environment etcetera. For instance, there are laws that govern advertising. These laws are set to ensure that advertisers are truthful and honest in their adverts. To protect the rights of employees, the government regulates issues such as the minimum wage payable to an employee, the maximum working hours and a good working environment. In addition, the government has put measures that regulate waste management and protection of the environment. Through the environmental protection agency, the government ensures businesses comply with environment protection regulation in order to protect the environment (Graham et al, 2010). Why Government Regulation is needed Governments in all countries in the world regulate business for both economic and social reasons. In the recent past governments have continually regulated businesses for economic reasons mostly to prevent falling productivity especially in developed economies. Social regulation is practiced in order to ensure businesses comply with the social or the moral expectation of the public. For instance in a movie rental company, the government would engage regulations that restrict distribution of pornographic and other banned films or limits the distribution to only the age appropriate groups (Khan & Jain, 2004). The main reason why a government is formed is to protect the rights of its citizens. There are a number of rights that if not protect may lead to social unrest. A government should ensure that property rights are enforced to ensure that the producers leap from their hard labor. In addition, the government should ensure the kind of media that is on sale is age appropriate. It should protect kids from content that may not be appropriate to them. For example, small kids should not be allowed to access pornography or content that is extremely violent. Another reason why a government should regulate businesses is to ensure a level playing ground for all firms. Because of the disparities in some resources a firm may possess an unfair advantage over other firms. In order to ensure that an industry is competitive, the government has to ensure that the industry has a level playing field and needs to be regulated. For instance, in the movie industry, the government may come in to break cartels that form in order to influence the prices of production and the distribution channels. Specifically, a government can put in place regulations that liberalize the market and break such cartels. In addition, the government has a moral obligation to protect the environment by ensuring that hazardous material is properly disposed. In a movie rental company, there are a lot of technological wastes generated. Lack of proper disposal of pc’s and other such like materials that cause cancer to humans may lead to increase in incidents of cancer. Therefore, the government must come up with measures that ensure that there are proper disposal mechanisms for such waste. The benefits of a merger There are a lot of advantages that blockbuster would enjoy as a result of forming a merger. One of the greatest advantages of forming a major is that blockbuster would enjoy the economies of scale as a result of operating as a larger company. Economies of scale occur as a result of reduction of average costs as a result of increased output. In addition, the merger can help blockbuster achieve diversification. For example, blockbuster can merge with firms that provide a different service from what it offers. By doing so, block buster will obtain access to knowledge and expertise that may help the firm gain competitive advantage. However, the advantages of forming a merger depend on a number of factors. Specifically, the success of a merger depend on the scope of economies scale created, effects on monopoly power, and the effects on cost. However, due to the threats, blockbuster chooses to pursue its expansion plan by capital investment. Capital projects are long term investments that are made to build on, or improve a capital intensive project. A project that is capital intensive requires the input of considerable amounts of capital especially financial and labor to start and run. They also require a lot of planning and resources. There are a number of ways that a firm can finance capital projects. Before determining the best way to finance capital projects, a firm should seek to determine the costs, the viability of the investment and the stream of returns from the investment. Despite the advantages of forming a merger, there are a lot of complexities that makes it less attractive to form a merger. For example, there is the issue of dilution of control. By forming a merger, the firm will reduce the amount of control it has on decision making. It will have to contend with the inclusion of new investor who will inherit the right to vote on significant decisions. This may change the goals of a company and work to slow decision making. A merger also reduces the public’s confidence in a firm. The public may construe the move as a measure to save the firm from imminent failure. In order to eliminate these complexities, it becomes paramount to seek alternative ways of expanding a business. One of the alternatives is capital expenditures. However, it is not overly advantageous. Complexities of funding expansion using capital expenditures The cost outlay of financing capital expenditures is particularly high. Therefore, a firm has to do a comprehensive review of the cost and benefits of using the available funds to expand the business. In addition to the cost, capital expenditures require a huge investment of time and labor. Given that these resources are limited a firm is constrained by the availability of the factors of production. For a firm that has limited resources will find it extremely difficult to expand via capital expenditures. Convergence of the needs of the stockholders and managers The need of stockholders is to maximize increase their wealth. On the other hand, the management aims to achieve management efficiency and increase a business’s competitiveness. The common goal of both parties is profitability. A stockholders wealth is increased significantly by profits. On the other hand, a business becomes efficient if uses the least resources to achieve the greatest possible profit (Thukaram, 2003). The method of expansion chosen for the firm will be the most efficient and that will maximize the return on investment by the stockholders. To determine the returns from the investment a firm can use scientific ways of measuring the highest possible level of returns. These methods include, evaluating the marginal rate of return for the project.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Leadership Analysis

Running head: SCHOLARSHIP, PRACTICE, AND LEADERSHIP Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership Essay Cory A. Muhammad University of Phoenix Education and Information Literacy In a US society where information literacy is considered a luxury and not a human right enables intellectual illiteracy limits to be pushed to the max. It’s a nightmare how some can be deceived and taken advantage of or even locked out of opportunities by those who demonstrate the use of information literacy. The desire for current and upcoming generations desiring access to information through text is becoming scarce. Researchers found that current and possible future generations would rather watch videos or tutorials instead of reading information found in text materials. â€Å"Experts suggested that they preferred to view information rather than read it, and so tended to choose information that was graphically represented rather than just text-based† (Venkatraman, 2009, p. 6). Today within the environment of education we are experiencing an increasing need for individuals to take interests in their own learning and exposure to information literacy for a variety of reasons: a) It gives learners the ability to become exposed to higher education and technology b) Enables learners to communicate (using technology) in an educational setting, and c) Prepares students to relate to the various generations of learners. In this essay I will discuss how information literacy relates to the scholar/practitioner/leadership model. Higher Education and Technology Anyone pursuing higher education will have to get use to the ideal of incorporating scholar practice of information literacy. As learners grow stronger in the use of information literacy, we can expose ourselves to higher educational opportunities such as Universities, trade colleges, skill centers, or career enhancement programs. Once an individual can be exposed to the various information located in most libraries all information retrieved completely enhances all researched subjects and allows for more profound subject content. In higher education information literacy plays a major role in the use of technology. Technology is an essential learning tool used amongst students and professionals today. Information illiteracy can lead to the mis-understanding and fear of technology. Information illiteracy can ultimately cause generational gaps in communication as-well. When one generation has not adequately prepared for the trend of another generation (generation X) vs. (Generation Y), this is a clear indication of information illiteracy. The new generation communicates in an integrated way, leveraging the technology that’s available. However libraries and other information providers â€Å"have fundamental problems in adapting†, â€Å"They're not keeping up with the demand of these researchers, who live in the wider internet space,† (Venkatraman, 2009, p. 6). Education and Communication Using Technology Computer literacy, Internet literacy, e-mail functionality, search engine and database li teracy are a few amongst a huge arena of technology functions in our ever changing world we live in. Information literacy allows learners the opportunity to become literate in the world of technology and the use of wonderful tools to gain better performance in processing day to day tasks. The flipside to this same coin is information illiteracy prevents people from knowing about the reality of technology and its benefit. Information literacy ultimately improves the learner’s quality of life as they are being exposed to superior methods of functioning, as well as make themselves marketable from possessing education. â€Å"Most are not even aware of the potential help that is available to them. Libraries, which provide the best access point to information for most U. S. citizens, are left untapped by those who most need help to improve their quality of life† (â€Å"Association of College & Research Libraries,† 1989). Communication Channels to Transcend Generations Information literacy ensures opportunity for open communication channels between different generations of learners, or leadership teams. Adequate communications through information literacy develops leadership amongst the educational atmosphere. The one who has the ability to relate to the various generations can easily emerge from the groups as a leader. Learning and professional environments benefit a great deal when an open line of communications exists between generations incorporating, wisdom, knowledge, desire, energy, and perspective. Information literacy allows for generations to be aware of each others benefit, but also rely on each other for constant innovation and progress. Information illiteracy will only promote detraction from any information or understanding of various generations and a low desire for people to pursue higher education. â€Å"There is a danger of a new elite developing in our country: the information elite† (Venkatraman, 2009, p. 6). Information literacy on the other hand, promotes the desire of individuals to continue to pursuing knowledge, and learning. In conclusion, the articles researched on information literacy revealed the current condition in our country regarding information illiteracy. Grades K-12, secondary, post secondary, graduate and even doctoral learning suffers from information il literacy. Students not engaging in intense research fail to use credible sources that handicap their ability to broaden their knowledge on specific subject matter. Students’ abilities to incorporate diverse forms of information literacy will enhance their educational experience and make it a more lifelong and fulfilling learning experience. By restructuring the learning process learners can develop skills to become practitioners of information literacy. Information literacy helps set up various frameworks for individuals to resolve moral dilemmas. The continued development of information literacy models could provide students and professionals within organizations the relatable life skills required for the scholar/practitioner/leadership model. References: Association of College & Research Libraries. (1989). Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. Retrieved from http://news. ala. org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential. cfm#opp. on June 7, 2009. Lauer, S. , & Yodanis, C. (2004, July). The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP): A Tool for Teaching with an International Perspective. Teaching Sociology, 32(3), 304-313. Retrieved June 7, 2009, from SocINDEX with Full Text database. Venkatraman, A. (2009,

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Khe Sahn, Leaving Home, Geography Lesson; Journey Theme Essay

Each person’s life undertakes a journey, whether it is physically or mentally. We all undergo our own adversities, tears, pains, and obstacles which can change yours and the society’s perspectives of life. Journey’s can be classified as a distance, course, travelled or appropriate for travelling. The poems â€Å"Leaving Home† by Peter Skrzynecki and â€Å"Geography Lesson† by Brian Patten both include different techniques such as metaphors and imagery to emphasise the different processes, changes, choices and conflict that each person or character may face throughout a journey. Techniques are also used in the song â€Å"Khe Sahn† composed by Donald Walker, providing a glance of how soldiers were treated in the war and the challenges they had to overcome, which all relate back to journeys. ‘Leaving home’ is not just about the destination, but the process in which he goes through to get there, and what he learns along the way is what truly counts. The character’s interview with head office caught him by surprise when the â€Å"first country appointment† left him and his family with a â€Å"dull-witted, frog-mouthed obedience†. This metaphor shows how unaware the family was about what could happen and that this was the beginning of his process through a journey. He learns along the way that he holds an unknown future and emotionally, this journey is taking its toll on him. The process within the journey helps determine the up-coming events, whether it is broken into steps or left in somebody else’s hand to determine through the ride. In comparison to ‘Leaving Home’, ‘Khe Sahn’ explores the quick change, that the main character experiences in the context, leaving the process to change his life rapidly. The hostile reception took a toll on the character and when returning from war it was extremely overwhelming. â€Å"I’ve had the Vietnam cold turkey† is Walker showing the process that the character or inspiration of the text has experienced and that he had to abruptly withdraw from the war he witnessed and fought in. The context is providing an internal look on the character and the issues and conflicts he came across after the war. Earlier in the text we find that the character ‘left his heart to the sappers round’ which means, this is him planting his heart to the Khe Sahn battle. Returning from the battle leaves him struggling to find himself mentally, indicating the process he experiences throughout his journey, and to find himself and whom he used to be so quickly. ‘Geography Lesson’ is the internal thoughts of a young student who shares his personal memories of his Geography teacher. Change is a major theme used throughout this poem. It overlooks his teacher’s life and the change he progresses. His belief that his Geography teacher should ‘sail across a warm blue sea’ to a place that he had ‘only known from maps’ glimpses into the thought of the student and the goal in which he believes his teacher should achieve. â€Å"He spoke of the lands he longed to visit† uses personal pronouns to illustrate that the journey is about his teacher and not the young student. â€Å"And I couldn’t understand why he never left†. The contrast between the two quotes emphasise the change and that he never got to the places he longed to visit, which makes the audience wonder ‘Why didn’t he go to the lands?’ ‘What happened to him?’ directing the audience’s attention to the obstacles involved in the journey, making us wonder how his journey ended. ‘Leaving home’ establishes the conflict, change and hatred the character has towards head office, by using disjointed images to describe the office boys. With his family, the main appeal is set towards the ‘unknown† where his distant future is set to thrive. Here we see the change in his attitude towards head office. It now presents his actual revulsion in them because of being sent somewhere that, to him, is unsatisfactory. Comparing the interview as trial and verdict makes the journey seem more daunting than it really is, with his disgust towards head office it is emphasised by using imagery, which highlights his loathing towards the office boys. â€Å"Stood at a window, laughing in the rain, Clapping to a fiddler’s music – Their naked hairless bodies, The colour of sour milk†. The sickening imagery used ends the poem by making it appear that head office, leaves a bad taste in his mouth. The imagery reflects on the journey by showing the change from confusion to rapid repulsion that he has towards the office people. ‘Khe Sanh’ in itself, is very much like a poem. The lyrics explore the lack of support that we, as a society, put towards a particular issue. The lyrics demonstrates that by protesting through a song, it can help influence Australian’s thoughts to sympathise with the veteran soldiers that have undertaken the hardships throughout the battle. Along the way, the society’s perspectives on the veterans changed. â€Å"Well the last plane out of Sydney’s almost gone† is a constant repetition throughout the composition, which helps get the message across that he is holding all this excess baggage from the war and all veterans hold onto that. Whilst the rest of society have moved on, forgotten about it, and don’t understand the adversity the ‘vets’ have gone through. The change from life after war takes a massive toll on the character, and the emotional journey from life after war is tough to break. But the choice for Walker to compose lyrics using the ‘Khe Sahn’ battle was to indicate the journey all veterans undertook and attempted to overcome. Whilst, ‘Geography Lesson’ uses symbolism to identify the place he had only known from maps. Patten’s devotion towards the poem indicates a life full of experience and imagination, leaving you with an urge to ‘sail across a warm blue sea’ and get to the place the teacher ‘longed to visit.’ Symbolism is used to create an effect on the audience by using repetition, (like in ‘Khe Sahn’), to describe the geography teachers ‘heaven’. â€Å"The green leaves of the orange trees burned† is a constant line in the stanza’s, used to help indicate his teacher’s dream. The imagery in this quote builds your imagination on what the place on the map is really like; seeming like it is a bright and positive place to be. The young student uses his teacher as his role model, reflecting on his own decisions in life. This emotional journey brings a sense of hope, desire, and dreams, to not waste your life, but to live it to the fullest. In conclusion, we all embark on a passage through life. Whether it be physically, mentally or emotionally. To get through a journey you only need to take one step at a time, but you must keep on stepping in order to complete your journey. This is found in ‘Leaving Home’, ‘Khe Sahn’ and ‘Geography Lesson’, by overcoming their own pathways through life. Through these texts it is found that Journeys are full of ups and downs, twists and turns, and obstacles that all lead us to our final destination. It really does change our perspective of life itself.