Saturday, August 24, 2019
Census Koreans in LA - Research Proposal Example This population continues to enlarge since the historic immigration into Bunker Hill two decades in the wake of the 20th century (Theme 98). Bunker Hill is in present-day Los Angeles. Then, this region was designated for non-whites and ethnic minorities were allowed to reside during the first two decades of the century. Earliest Korean immigrants into the US had domestic and casual jobs, which involved hard labor in manufacturing and other operating plants. The Korean community migrated into geographical territory covering the region from Vermont Streets and Normandie. This area is the present-day Korea Town, California. By the 1950s, Los Angeles received the second wave of ethnic Korean immigrants from the Korean War. This population combined with the descendants of the first-wave immigration influx of the 1900s and the demographics began to soar amid rising birth rates and continued intermarriage interaction with other races. Most of the Korean population worked as truck drivers, waiters, and domestic workers for most of the 20th century (Gives 87). Present demographic statistics indicates that Korean Americans living in California account for 18.5 % of the entire ethnic Korean demographic in the United States (Min 67). Los Angeles County is home to over half a million ethnic Korean Ã¢â¬â demographic includes intermarried and those of interracial
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Friday, August 23, 2019
3three - Case Study Example The student has spelling mistakes and grammatical error in the written response. The error is as a result of mixture of Spanish language and English. She does not know how to differentiate the correct English word from other Spanish language. The other issue is oral presentation among the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s members. She speaks English that is mixtures of different languages which her fellow students could not understand even the teacher. Sentence construction also was a problem. She does not follow the order, she starts from any word. The words are not in a logical sequence which disobeys the order of grammar and sentence construction. The instructional strategy that could be challenging to the student is group discussion. The student could not interact with other student because of her oral presentation. She could not comprehend and give meaning as she interacted with other class member. The student could not interact with other students because of the difficulty in language. Interaction involves communication between and among the students. If she could not speak fluent English, others could not understand her. Group discussion becomes lively and appreciative if the entire student can speak and understand each other. The student could express herself but not fully because of inadequate vocabularies among her friends. The group discussion a strategy toward the student could be adjusted in order to accommodate the students. Before involvement in the group, the student could be taken through English vocabularies and how to arrange the sentence that could be used to guide the students before the group discussion. Close interaction with other students would give the student another opportunity to learn new language. Intensified written work would help to support. Learning vocabularies, written presentation and close interaction would give the student the opportunity to learn new ideas and words that would help her in interacting with other students
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Thursday, August 22, 2019
My opinion - Essay Example By looking at this, the shifting trends of competitive analysis and the sustainability of the organizations have also been possible. I think that the concept of people management and its role in the sustainability and competitiveness of the organization is directly proportional to one another. The example of Southwest airline mentioned in the article clearly suggests that despite of having the best rates of its stock, the company did not achieve success and growth; while, in the later years, it achieved competitive advantage by successfully competing in the industry with the help of its efficient labor force. The example of Nordstrom also suggests that the favorable employee compensation and benefits schemes led the store to success. The factors such as employment security, selectivity in recruiting, high wages, incentive pay, employee ownership, participation and empowerment, and their training and development contribute to the organization big time. I think that, besides the moneta ry benefits, even non monetary enhancements such as promotions and autonomy also helps enriching the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s morale.
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Determination of the molar volume of hydrogen gas Essay Introduction We are going to determine the molar volume of hydrogen gas by letting known amount of magnesium react with dilute hydrochloric acid and carefully collecting the gas formed. Materials Gas syringe Hydrochloric acid, 2-molar 8 cm of magnesium ribbon Ruler Emery cloth For details see instruction form Methods We connect the equipment according to the diagram and make sure we follow the instructions carefully, and then we weigh the 8 cm of magnesium ribbon and pour the HCl into the test tube. As we are ready to start the experiment we fold the mg ribbon on the hook and put the stopper into the test tube so that when we tilt the test tube the mg ribbon can easily fall into the acid. It is important to wait for the reaction to finish completely so that the equipment returns back to room temperature. For details see instruction form. Results: Measured weigh of 8 cm mg ribbon: 0.068 g (uncertainty is Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ 0.0001) Room temperature: 21.9 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C (uncertainty is Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ 0.1) Room pressure: 742.5 mmHg Vapour pressure of water: 19.587 and 19.827 Vapour pressure: 19.587 + 19.827 / 2 = 19.707 1.333 x 102 x (mmHg) = Pa Convert the room pressure in mmHg into Pa: 742.5 x 1.333 x 102 = 98975.25 Pa Convert the vapour pressure of water into Pa: 19707 x 1.333 x 102 = 2626.9431 p(H2O) = 2626.9431 Pa Room pressure (Pa) Vapour pressure of water (Pa) 98975.25 Pa 2626.9431 Pa = 96348.3069 Pa p(H2) = 96348.3069 Pa p(H2) + p(H2O) = p(room) 2626.9431 + 96348.3069 = 98975.25 p(room) Calculation of molar volume for hydrogen gas at 0 C and 1 atmosphere P1 x V1 / T1 = P2 + V2 / T2 1 atm = 1.013 x 105 P1 = 96348.3069 P2 = 1 atm = 101300 V1 = 70 cm3 (uncertainty is Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½1) V2 = 59cm3 (uncertainty is Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.5) T1 = 21.9 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C = 294.9 K (uncertainty is Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½1.3466 ) T2 = 0 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C = 273 K 96348.3069 x 70 x 1 / 294.9 = 101300 x 59 x 0.5 / 273 Conclusion Evaluation: Our conclusion is that the molar volume of hydrogen gas at 0 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C and 1 atmosphere is -. We reached the conclusion by first checking the room temperature and barometer pressure. Then we looked up the values for vapour pressure of water at the actual temperature from the Hand book of Chemistry and Physics. The full reference is: Chemistry for the IB diploloma G. Neuss. Oxford UP, 2001 p.28.
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Sudanese Islamic Banking System Commerce Essay The last thirty years have witnessed the appearance and rapid expansion of Islamic banking in Sudan as Islamic country and outside of Islamic countries. Islamic banks provide product and services that do not contravene with Islamic law and human conduct. The Islamic principles claim the Islamic banks to operate give an important role to social issues and developing economy as the hole. The history of banking in Sudan started in 1903 which the first bank operated in Sudan was the national bank of Egypt in 1903 and plays the role of central bank in Sudan up to 1956, and followed by Barclays bank in 1913. The central bank of Sudan established in February 1960, which it drive the appearance of banking in Sudan, and during the period from 1962 to 1969 a numbers of domestic banks are established, and after that followed by a numbers of foreign banks and branches were allowed to operate such as Abu-Dhabi bank in 1976 and City bank in 1978. The year 1978 had witnessed the establishment of first Islamic bank in the Sudan that was Fisal Islamic bank, marked the first step to Islamise all Sudanese banks later, after that the success of Fisal Islamic bank during this period led to appear a number of Islamic banks such as Tadamon Islamic bank, the Sudanese Islamic bank, the Islamic Cooperative development bank and Al-baraka bank, all these banks succeeded to attracting more dep ositors, and hence, more branches were opened over all stat of Sudan. In 1983 the government applied Shariah rules on all transaction that lead to Islimisation all banks and prohibited receiving or paying interest. In addition, during the period from 1985 to 1988 the new government issuing rules to open conventional banks; however it led to conflict between Islamic banks and conventional banks and this period characterised such as increase the private banks in banking market. Moreover, there are many irregularities and lack of interest by the competent authorities, causing a shake-up the Sudanese banking system has suffered and dropped, that refer to the following reasons: Firstly, has not received the decision with interest the responsible authorities and its implementation and follow-up of the Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Central Bank of Sudan and senior management of the banks at that time. Secondly, let each bank to the Islamisation of how to see without assistance and follow-up by Jurisdiction. Thirdly, the lack of staff trained and familiar with the nature of Islamic banking in the State-owned banks that have been converted to Islam about a dozen banks that any significant number. Finally, the survival of conventional bank personnel to overseeing the investment status in the main departments of investment banks branches of government. Available on Central Bank of Sudan (2010) In 1992 the new government issued a more comprehensive law which envisioned an economy-wide Islamisation of the financial system including the government sector. Now all working banks are using Islamic modes of finance in all transactions. An important development worth mentioning is the attempt being made to eliminate interest from the government sector also. This led to increase the number of banks operating on the basis of Islamic mode of finance from 6 Islamic banks in 1980 to 29 in 1997 and to 33 in 2010. Also in this period a number of banks are merged such as government banks, and some foreign banks are terminated such as City bank. It can be in this report concerning on the last twenty years to explain and describe the structure and the type of business perform by Islamic banking in Sudan, also describe the main features of Islamic banking in Sudan. Iqbal and Molyneux (2004) Characteristic and Objectives of Islamic Banking in Sudan: The main characteristic and objectives of Sudanese Islamic banking system was revolve around sex elements which are explained in the following: Firstly, Islamic finance involves a system of equity sharing and stake-taking. It works by the principle of a variable return depending on the real productivity and how well the project performs. Therefore, Islamic principle remains of equity, reward and risk sharing unlike the conventional concept. Secondly, Sudanese Islamic banking plays important role in the economy, which is to an extent a revolutionary development as it calls for new approach to the economy. Islam needs the economy; its most important monetary and business dealings, to change away from debt-based partnership to an equity based and stake taking relationship. While theÃ some debt-based transactions will still exist in the Islamic bank but it will be based on the principle of Quard Hason (take for special case fore specific reason and guaranteed by equal amount deposited in investment account. e. g. if some company deposit large amount in investment account for one year and after 8 months need some amount for tw o months, then will take Quard Hasan for two months based on deposit amount in the investment account because it enable the company to gain the profit for this amount for two months which it can be provide the balance of investment account as guarantee to the bank). The overall purpose of the economy will be arranged towards equity based and risk sharing. Thirdly, in the Islamic mode ethics will play a key role. The ethical and social size will be essential to all economic activities, there will exist structure of Halal (permissible) and Haram (prohibited) within which all economic activity, private and public, has to be taken in place. The ethical issue will work at different levels and therefore morals will effect to the conscience of the entrepreneur and the firm, the society, the legal structure and the supervisory of the state. However, Islamic banks activities which would be treated the capitalist in Halal productivity and avoid gambling, prostitution, the promotion of alcohol , and any Haram productivity. Therefore social and ethical will be part of the Islamic economic system, and then all bank transaction will be made based on Shariha law and Islamic norms. Fifthly, the government of Sudan encourage the Islamic banking is entrepreneurial driven to directed for all not just towards financial expansion but also towards physical expansion of economic production and services. In the Islamic economy money will not produce money; it is expected to finance talent, innovation and new ideas, skills and opportunities. Whereas, conventional banking operates predominantly on the basis of financial collateral, therefore the more money you have, the more you can get. This means that the viability of a project mainly depends on the financial worth of the borrower; meaning that low collateral can reduce the chance of getting a loan, even if the project is viable and the person has impeccable character. Whereas, in the Islamic system collateral is not ignored but it is reduced, through the trustworthiness of the person, the viability and usefulness of the project; which is more important then the financial worth of the borrower. This means in the Islamic system greater emphasise is placed on human needs such as fair distribution, equity, community and individual development. Therefore, Islamic banking is more oriented towards the community, talent and entrepreneurship in Sudan to improve the individual income as specific objective and develops GDP as general objective. Finally, the Islamic system is non-inflationary; this is a very important and fundamental aspect of Islamic banking because the rate of inflation in Sudan slightly stable during last twenty years based on developed banking sector. The linkage between financial expansion, money supply and the physical expansion of the economy is a result of the financial and banking dynamics of the current time, however, the Islamic banking and finance restores the balance between these three variab les. Stability in the value of money is a primary goal of an Islamic economy. Therefore all economic sectors are developed because Islamic banking helps to allocate resources between all sectors. Finally, provide financial services such as open accounts, transfer money, collecting checks, deposit and debit, and etc to the customers, Abdullah Hawiad (2008). The Operation ofIslamic Banks in Sudan: All Islamic banks in Sudan operate similar to conventional banks by providing three types of accounts; current accounts, saving accounts and investment accounts, in current accounts Islamic banks and conventional banks provide check book and take a fee and in saving account not take a fee and also not offer to holders of saving accounts profit but take permission of the account holder to use his funds in other business activities but this principal is guaranteed, today some banks offer saving account as current account to attractive the depositors in the market. In the investment account Sudanese Islamic bank are different from conventional and others Islamic banks in others countries by providing profit to the lender in the end of year and this profit is determined in the end of year because the banks take a money as modareb and not determine the percentage of profit because it depend on the all profit at the end of year, and also the investors agree in advance to share the profit a nd loss in a given proportion with the bank, but her the banks attractive the investors based on the percentage of profit divided to the investors in the previous year which how banks offer high percentage will gain a large amount from investors in the future. Therefore, Sudanese Islamic banks are similar to Islamic banks in any Muslim countries but the main idea in Sudanese Islamic banking structure is to in corporate the classical mudarabah intoÃ a modern complex system in order to an interest-free banking system . The function of Sudanese Islamic bank can be explaining the structure of Islamic bank, the Islamic bank collect the funds from their investors is called Rab-al-mal, the Islamic bank is Mudareb (intermediary part or agent) which is transfer the funds to entrepreneurs based on Islamic modes of finance like murabaha, mudarabah, musharaka, bai-al-salam,muqawala, muzarah, and istisna, which the banks share the profit between the bank and the holders of investment accounts . . Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005) Structure and Size of IslamicBanking in Sudan: The remarkable change in Sudanese Islamic banking industry in the last two decades there are an improvement in the performance of Sudanese Islamic banks due to improving in the infrastructure, stable the economic policies, the best distribution of income and resource among different economic sectors and end of the civil war in Sudan. According to these factors Islamic banks in Sudan grow rapidly in terms of assets and deposits size and have maintained considerable profit level as shown by the represented balance sheets and income statements. In addition, the accounting published data show the contribution of these banks in full filling their social responsibility and in the reduction of poverty in Sudan as reflecting by the distribution of large amount of Zakah to the poor and needy people, also the government establish family banks which is specialist to provide finance to the talent, innovation and producers family. Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005). Sudanese Islamic banking structure are grouped depend on economic sectors which are any groups are specialist to provide financial service for specific sector based on specific mode or instrument of Islamic finance. However, the authorized banks operating in Sudan is 33 banks which are grouped in two types commercial banks, so it represents 83% from all banking and which are include 2 banks are state-owned banks, 21 are joint banks and 4 are foreign banks branches. The second type is specialized banks, which it represents 17% in banking sector and also involves 5 banks are state-owned banks, which include industry development bank, will offer finance to industry sectors (long-term finance), Sudanese agricultural bank, so its large bank because agriculture represent a large sector in the economy, and Savings and Social Development Bank, and Family bank which is provide finance to producers family to improve individual income. In addition, Investment Bank is joint bank and specialized to issuing Sukuk in stock market and collect funds from lenders and invest these funds by them self in investment project without lending for a third party, (i.e. sharing between public, government and foreign). Available on Sudan Financial Times (2008). Therefore Sudanese Islamic banks have mainly applied five modes of finance in their financial instruments which are Murabaha, Musharaka, Mudaraba, Salam and Muqaula, it can be explained in the following figures:- Murabaha: Murabaha is referred to particular kind of sell, where the banksÃ where the banks acquired the commodity and sell it to another client at profit margin or mark-up expressly disclosing to the purchaser the cost price that he has paid for the commodity. Murabaha represent the main mode of finance in Sudanese Islamic banking and all commercial banks depend on this contract in finance because it provide large profit margin for the banks in short periods therefore the central bank of Sudan restricted this mode to be invested by all banks in 30% of all their investments operations and the maximum profit margin for this mode not greater than 9% per annum. The other reason to restrict Murabaha because the need of allocate resource during all economic sectors by the central bank. Available on Central bank of Sudan policies Musharaka:Musharaka consist more than 50% of total finance because it use to finance in different sectors especially in industry sectors because it needs long term finance and also central bank take each banks option to determine the percentage and margin of Musharaka profit and sharing. Mudaraba:Mudaraba is mainly applied investment bank because it specialized to collect money from depositors and invest this funds directly without lending to third party and also investment bank specialized to issuing Sukuk in stock market because it issued based on Mudaraba only in Sudanese stock market on the other hand the central bank take the investment bank option to determine the share of Mudarib in the realized profit in the end of project investment and then the investment bank offering the depositors more profit than other commercial banks to attract more funds from investors. Other mode of finance:The other modes of finance include Salam, Muqaula and Istisna, the central bank encourages all banks to diversify the finance among different modes to reduce the risk and maximize profit. Salam is very useful mode of finance applied by agriculture bank and family bank to improve the agriculture sectors and improve the individual income and this mode of finance is supported by the central bank to finance customers without any collateral in the sectors of social and agriculture. Muqaula use to finance the real estate sectors and also istisna use to finance industry sectors this two modes of finance used by all commercial banks in Sudan, therefore, all domestic commercial banks established business units to compete the market and diversify the business and finance to maximize the profit and minimize the risk such as, Faisal Islamic bank (Sudan) established Takaful company, the real estate company and stock company to trade in Sukuk market. . Available on Sudan Fina ncial Times (2008). Foreign banks size and performance: The foreign banks represent 12% from all Sudanese Islamic banks and attractive most of export and import finance which are applying different modes of Islamic finance because Sudan are suffering from scarcity of foreign currency due to the international ban and government ideology and foreign policy. Then foreign banks in Sudan play the significant rule to develop the export and import sectors by offering finance to issuing letter of credit and letter of grantee for all international transactions therefore it will drive the foreign market because it provide finance and service at low cost. Available on central bank of Sudan. Conclusion: Today Sudanese Islamic banking sector are grow rapidly and more successful in the last twenty years and successful to improve the economy in the all sectors. In the other hand, according to the technology development all Sudanese banks are linked by network which it enable them to provide clearing house service, ATM service, Internet service and point of sale service, however, the degree of competition in banking sector is very high because some banks use the IT as barriers to block the potential banks to enter the market and use IT to compete the current market because the degree of completion increase after Sudan export petroleum and also large foreign bank need to enter banking market to finance long-term finance and compete the foreign currencies and letter of credit finance because it provide high profit to the banks. On the other side after ending the civil war and peace agreement in 2005 the central bank allowed conventional banks to start working in southern Sudan as its been mentioned in the conditions of the peace agreement but there are no literature of data available about the banks in southern Sudan because it established recently in 2008. Reference: The Central Bank of Sudan Policies, available on http://www.cbos.gov.sd/english/policies.htmÃ last accessed 07.04.2010. Thirty Years of Islamic Banking: History, Performance and Prospects, Munawar Iqbal and Philip Molyneux (2004). Islamic Banking System, Islamic Banking Concept, Abdullah Hawiad(2008), available on http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1283093, last accessed 08.04.2010. Magda Abdel Mohsin (2005) The Practice of Islamic Banking System in Sudan, available on http://www.sesrtcic.org/files/article/82.pdf last accessed 02.04.2010. Islamic Banking in the Sudan available on Sudan Financial Times (2008) http://www.sudanfinancialtimes.com/index.php?option=com_contenttask=viewid=166Itemid=33, last accessed 08.04.2010. Central bank polices, available on http://www.bankofsudan.org/english/backge.htm last accessed 09.04.2010. Banking and Financial Sectors, available on central bank of SudanÃ http://www.bankofsudan.org/english/id_e/banks/banks.htm, last accessed 09.04.2010
Posted by Unknown at 4:50 AM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Is Sexual Orientation Genetic Sociology Essay In this modernised world sex and relationship plays an important role as sexuality is part of who we are as humans. Sexuality defines how we see ourselves and how we physically relate to others beyond having the ability to reproduce. Sexuality is made up of three components which include biological sex, gender identity, and social gender role. In a less brief context, biological sex is the anatomical, physiological, and genetic characteristics associated with being a male or female, gender identity means the physiological sense of being a male or female and social gender role is the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behaviour (1). Sexual orientation is known as an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic and sexual attractions to men, women or both sexes besides also referring to a persons sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviours and memberships in a community of others who share those attractions which may or may not be evident in a persons appearance or behaviour. People may choose not to act on such feelings as having attractions to people of the same sex or opposite sex. For example, a bisexual who can be attracted to members of either sex may choose to have a one partner relationship with one gender, therefore, choosing not to act on the attraction of another gender (1). Three commonly recognized aspect of sexual orientation are heterosexuality, bisexuality, homosexuality and one uncommon aspect is asexuality which is when a person has no sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity. Therefore, sexual orientation differs from sexual behaviour in that it involves an individuals feelings and perception of their own sexuality. According to current scientific and professional understanding, the core attractions that form the basis for adult sexual orientation typically emerge between middle childhood and early adolescence. These patterns of emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction may arise without any prior sexual experience. Heterosexuality is the attraction to individuals of the other gender which is the cultural normality for the behaviour of males and females. For example, males and females being attracted to individuals of the opposite sex. Bisexuality is the attraction to members of either gender, as an example a male having a sexual relationship with another male partner as well with a female partner. On the other hand, homosexuality can be defined as the attraction to members of the same gender, are not completely understood by scientists. Scientists have pondered the theory for many years that sexual preference is a learned behaviour that is developed during early childhood. There are many theories regarding how a particular sexual orientation develops. Some scientists share the view that sexual orientation is shaped at an early age through interactions of biological, psychological and social factors. Other psychologists, psychiatrists and mental health professionals agree that homosexuality may be genetically predetermined. Research over the past thirty-five years has determined that homosexuality is not an illness, mental disorder or emotional problem. Other objective research shows that homosexual orientation is not associated with emotional or social problems. Because sexual orientation develops in early adolescence, without any prior sexual experience, it is believed that it is not chosen. It has been reported that some people try diligently to change their sexual preference from homosexual to heterosexual with no success. For this reason, psychologists do not consider sexual orientation to be a conscious choice that can be voluntarily changed. An untrue stereotype about homosexuals is the belief that gay men have more of a tendency than heterosexual men to sexually molest children. There is no evidence of this. Instead, recent studies have shown that homosexual parents are quite capable of rearing developmentally secure children who are intelligent, as well as being psychologically well adjusted. There is no evidence that homosexual parents are less capable of parenting than heterosexual parents. Because therapy cannot change sexual orientation, it is important for society to become better educated about homosexuality, thus diminishing anti-gay prejudice. Accurate information for young people struggling with their own sexual identity is especially important. The belief that such information when given to young people will affect ones sexual orientation is not valid. The people who have the most positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians are those who say they know one or more gay persons well. For this reason, psychiatrists believe that discrimination against homosexuality is based on his or her lack of knowledge concerning gay people. Therefore, educating all people about sexual orientation and homosexuality is likely to diminish anti-gay prejudice. Homosexuality was once believed to be a mental illness, due to the unfortunate fact that mental health professionals furnished society with incorrect information. Most studies about homosexuals only involved gay men and lesbians who were in therapy. They were seeking help for their problems, just as straight men and women do. These studies, and the misunderstanding of homosexuality, seriously damaged the acceptance of gay men and lesbians. The theories of homosexuals by psychologists, psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, painted an untrue portrait of gay men and lesbians. This unfair portrayal directly attributed to the un-acceptance of homosexuals. In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association confirmed that homosexuals were not mentally ill, and it was not until two years later in 1975, that the American Psychological Association passed a resolution supporting this confirmation. Both associations urged all mental health professionals to help dispel the stigma of mental illness that had been associated with homosexual orientation. Since this original declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, this decision has been reaffirmed by additional research findings and by both associations. However, when one is reared to believe a certain way, it is not easy to change his or her opinion. Psychiatrists, psychologists and the Lord above could urge one to rethink a learned fact; however, to dispute a theory learned early in life is sometimes impossible. This unfair discrimination against homosexuals is an obstacle to their leading a normal, happy and productive life, which is the desire of gay men and lesbians, just as it is the desire of straight men and women. Research has shown a high rate of violence, as well as discrimination, against homosexuals. Just as it is with straight men, the more positive the gay male identity, the better ones mental health will become and the higher ones self-esteem will be. To accomplish this, the acceptance of gay men and lesbians as productive citizens, without prejudice, is necessary. Protection against violence and discrimination would not be necessary if one understood that gay men and lesbians are just like you and me; the only differ ence is their sexual preference. Most scientists today agree that sexual orientation is the result of a combination of environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors. In other words, there are many factors that contribute to a persons sexual orientation, and the factors may be different for different people. In other words, we intend to research in depth on each factor stated and how does it affect a persons sexual orientation then come to a conclusion if sexual orientation is genetic relating back to our topic. This is the prime objective of this project. To arrive at our objectives, we have to research about the other factors affecting sexual orientation. Therefore, we have divided each factor into 3 subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 will be a detailed explanation on how genetic factors contribute to sexual orientation. Chapter 3 consequently will be discussing on environmental and emotional factors in relation to sexual orientation. Besides that, Chapter 4 is on the role played by hormones in determining a persons sexual orientation. All these 3 chapters will be discussing sexual orientation on homosexuality and bisexuality. The final chapter will relate back to our main topic which is Is Sexual Orientation Genetic? A conclusion will be brought about based on the research, studies and evidences done on the previous 3 chapters. Chapter 2 : Genetic Factors Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types which is autosomes and sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes contain certain genetic traits link to a persons sex. It can be XX with phenotype female and XY with phenotype male. On the other hand, the autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information. Both autosomes and sex chromosomes act in the same way during cell division. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes of which 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosome giving a total of 46 per cell for one human. A persons sex is determined by the sex chromosome (wiki chromosome). Based on a research conducted by scientists on November 8th 2007, new evidences have been uncovered showing genetics has a role to play in determining whether an individual is homosexual or heterosexual. Dr. Sandra Witelson, a neuroscientist in the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University, and colleges at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto conducted the research on studies of the brains of healthy, right handed, 18 to 35- year old homosexual and heterosexual men using magnetic resonance imagining (MRI). About 10 years ago, which is now accepted as fact, studies have demonstrated that there is a higher proportion of left-handers in the homosexual population than the general population. Consequently, in other research it was found that left-handers have a larger region of the posterior corpus callosum which is the thick band of nerve fibres connecting the two hemispheres of the brain compared to the right- handers. Furthermore, the posterior part of the c orpus callosum is larger in homosexual than heterosexual men. The size of corpus callosum is largely inherited suggesting a genetic factor in sexual orientation. A correlational analysis by researchers which included size of the corpus callosum, and test scores on language, visual spatial and finger dexterity tests. Prediction on sexual orientation in 95 per cent of the cases was done by using all these variables. A report by the National Cancer Institute researchers states that the appearance that many homosexual men inherit a gene from their mothers that influences sexual orientation. It was suggested that inherited genetic factors at least play a role in determining sexual orientation. The studys lead author Dean Hamer, chief of the cancer institutes section on Gene Structure and regulation concluded that it is basically not a choice or a decision to be a gay. However, people have no control over the genes inherited and there is no way to change it. The family histories of 114 gay men were studied and it was found that more homosexual brothers, uncles and male cousins than would be expected in the general population whereby some families had three generations of homosexual relatives. It was suggested that something inherited was going on since the uncles and cousins were not raised in the same household but do share genetic information. Following up another studies was made on the DNA from 40 pairs of homosexual brothers and it was found that 33 of them shared same genetic markers on the X chromosome in a region known as Xq28. The X chromosomes are always inherited from mothers. Genes consist of tiny coils of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, which carries the instructions to manufacture a particular body substance. No such similar sharing was present in the same region among heterosexual men. It is expected that this region will be important for both heterosexual and homosexual development providing very small and subtle difference between the genes of each group. However, the finding does not explain all homosexuality. Seven out of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers studied did not have the common genetic factor. Part of the studies state that the cancer Kaposis sarcoma unusually afflicts large numbers of homosexuals. Further study is being conducted to determine whether a similar genetic link occurs in families of homosexual women hoping to identify the specific gene involved in sexual orientation. Gregory King, spokesman for the Human Rights Campaign Fund, a gay and lesbian activist group, said he hoped from the studies it would help Americans understand that most lesbian and gay people do not choose their sexual orientation. Despite, concerns are there among people who are lesbians and gay that this discovery will be misused to suggest that homosexuality is something that needs to be corrected. According to the variation in sexual orientation, heritability studies have differed on the precise contribution of genetics, though a few linkage studies have indicated a possible role for certain genes on the X chromosome. However, the strength of that evidence is limited due to the conflicting nature of the reports and small sample sizes. Some of the questions in relation to the possible genetic underpinnings of sexual orientation have been clarified by a more recent study conducted by the first ever genome-wide association study (GWAS) on sexual orientation. It is also in relation to the release of a web-based survey to the large 23andMe database of over 180,000 individuals. Furthermore, the other non-genetic phenotypes associated with sexual orientation are also explored. The objective is to understand the relationship between sexual orientation and non-genetic phenotypes as the data collected was extracted from dozens of 23andMe surveys taking into consideration thousands of conditions and trait. Research has shown that lesbians are more likely than heterosexual women to have alcoholism and alcohol-related problems (3). A number of studies have also found that women with same sex partners are more likely to have psychiatric disorders, including major depression (4) and men with same sex partners are more likely to have anxiety and mood disorders (5). Phenotype analyses were conducted using linear or logistic regression. In statistics, linear regression is the relationship between a scalar dependent variable Y and one or more explanatory variables denoted X as the data modelled using linear predictor functions, and unknown model parameters are estimated from the data. Logistic regression is a type of analysis used to predict the outcome of a categorical dependent variable based on one or more predictor variables that is used in estimating empirical values of the parameters in a qualitative response model(wiki). The reported betas are the change on the sexual identity scale per unit of the other phenotype. Both the phenotype analyses and GWAS analyses controlled for age, the first five principal components, and attitudes towards homosexuality as collected in the Sexual Orientation Survey. GWAS analyses were conducted in individuals of European descent. The questions asked for this study to over 23,000 individuals 23andMe database is as follows: The survey counts based on the questions asked were as below: They have examined the correlation between sexual identity and ~1000 phenotypes already characterized in the 23andMe database through other surveys. These analyses were preliminary as outliers or confounders beyond what is listed in the methods were not checked. Previous Ã ¬Ã ndings were replicated showing a positive association between lesbians and alcoholism, and between lesbians and gay men and several psychiatric conditions. Chapter 3 : Environmental and Emotional Factors On the development of human sexual orientation, another possible factor is the environmental and emotional influences. Many influences or factors lead to sexual orientation but no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Therefore, a great deal of people thinks nature and nurture both play complex roles (wiki environment sexual orientation). Environmental factors are associated with family influences. Evidence have been provided by researches that gay men report having had less loving and more rejecting fathers, and closer relationships with their mothers, than non-gay men. Some researchers think this may indicate that childhood family experiences are important determinants to homosexuality, or that parents behave this way in response to gender-variant traits in a child. Both possibilities might be true in different cases (wiki). Childhood factors do affect marital choices as children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families. In a broad point of view, heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships (a group of offspring having the same two parents) , and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. On the other hand, for women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10508-006-9062-2). Consequently, parental sexual orientation may affect child development. Studies were focused on an early research on children with lesbian and gay parents in which the children had been born in the context of a heterosexual marriage. The developments among children of divorced lesbian mothers were compared with children of divorced heterosexual mothers and few significant differences were found. Children in the research who had been born into homes with married mothers and fathers have no obvious reasons to understand on their healthy development as the children faced early exposure to apparently heterosexual male and female role models which mainly contributes to the healthy development. In comparison, a study conducted by Charlotte J. Patterson from University of Virginia on lesbian or gay parents who rear infants and children from offspring and it is important that the children had never lived with heterosexual parents. The study was on a group of 4 to 9 year old children who had been born to or adopted early in life by lesbian mothers. Results from in-home interviews and also from questionnaires showed that children had regular contact with a wide range of adults of both genders, both within and outside of their families. The childrens self-concepts and preferences for same-gender playmates and activities were much like those of other children their ages. Moreover, standardized measures of social competence and of behaviour problems, such as those from the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), showed that they scored within the range of normal variation for a representative sample of same-aged American children. Therefore, it was clear from this study and others like it that it was quite possible for lesbian mothers to rear healthy children. Consistent with earlier findings, results from the study revealed few differences in adjustment between adolescents living with same-sex parents and those living with opposite-sex parents . There were no significant differences between teenagers living with same-sex parents and those living with other-sex parents on self-reported assessments of psychological well-being, such as self-esteem and anxiety, measures of school outcomes, such as grade point averages and trouble in school, or measures of family relationships, such as parental warmth and care from adults and peers. Adolescents in the two groups were equally likely to say that they had been involved in a romantic relationship in the last 18 months, and they were equally likely to report having engaged in sexual intercourse. The only statistically reliable difference between the two groups is that those with same-sex parents felt a greater sense of connection to people at school compared to the youngsters living with same-sex c ouples. There were no significant differences in self-reported substance use, delinquency, or peer victimization between those reared by same or other-sex couples. Although the gender of parents partners was not an important predictor of adolescent well-being, other aspects of family relationships were significantly associated with teenagers adjustment. Consistent with other findings about adolescent development, the qualities of family relationships rather than the gender of parents partners were consistently related to adolescent outcomes. Parents who reported having close relationships with their offspring had adolescents who reported more favourable adjustment. The fact that children of lesbian mothers generally develop in healthy ways should not be taken to suggest that no challenges were encountered. Many investigators have remarked upon the fact that children of lesbian and gay parents may encounter anti-gay sentiments in their daily lives. For example, in a study of 10- year-old children born to lesbian mothers, Gartrell, Deck, Rodas, Peyser, and Banks (2005) reported that a substantial minority had encountered anti-gay sentiments among their peers. Those who had such encounters were likely to report having felt angry, upset, or sad about these experiences. Children of lesbian and gay parents may be exposed to prejudice against their parents in some settings, and this may be painful for them, but evidence for the idea that such encounters affect childrens overall adjustment is lacking. Another study, published in the October 2006 issue of Archives of Sexual Behaviour, authored by Danish epidemiologist Morten Frisch and statistician Anders Hviid, reports the analysis of data from over two million men and women. It is the first study to examine an entire group of homosexuals for environmental factors in their decisions to marry homosexually. The research suggests a link between environmental factors such as geographic birthplace and family relationships and the probability of marrying a same-sex or opposite-sex partner. The massive study also finds that the number of brothers and sisters increases the probability of marrying heterosexually. This finding questions a recent, widely touted Canadian study of birth order that found the number of older brothers increased the probably of homosexuality in men. The researchers found for each additional year ones parents stay married, the probability of heterosexual marriage in the children increased by 1.6% among sons and 1.0% among daughters. In contrast, the rate of homosexual unions decreased by 1.8% among sons and 1.4% among daughters for every year of intact parental marriage. Summing these effects over years of childhood and adolescence contributes to a noteworthy impact. Regarding homosexual marriages, researchers have also found that birth place relates to the sexual orientation of marriage partner. Being born in urban settings increased the probability of homosexual marriage and decreased the probability of heterosexual marriage. This study was said to be the first to show that birth place or some correlate thereof influences marital choices in adulthood. The researchers also confirmed previous research suggesting that children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than children reared in intact families. For men, unknown paternal identity, parental divorce, short duration of cohabitation with both parents, and long duration of father-absent cohabitation with mother were all associated with increased rates of homosexual marriage. For women, homosexual marriage rates were elevated among women whose parents were married briefly, and those who experienced long periods of mother absence due either to abandonment or death during the teen years. Taken together, the studys findings suggest that intact parents bearing multiple children and living in rural areas increase the probability of heterosexual pairings in their children. The study was not designed to examine all possible contributions to sexual orientation nor does it account for individual situations. We know, for instance, that gays and straights come from all kinds of families and locations. However, the study raises the possibility that family and social factors function to help shape adult sexual orientation. Chapter 4: Hormonal Factors Hormones are your bodys chemical messengers. It is released by one or more cells which travel through the bloodstream that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In relation to sexuality following up the hormonal theory, exposure to certain hormones plays an act in fetal sex differentiation. Besides that, this exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult. Hormones which interact with the developing brain cells coming from the differences in brain structure are accredit to be the basis of sex differences in countless behaviour, including sexual orientation. The interaction of these hormones on the developing brain is affected by prenatal factors that can influence later the sex-typed behaviour in children. Factors hypothesized in contributing to sex-typed behaviour concerns the same as those hypothesized to contribute to sexual orientation. Higher rates of sex-atypical behaviour in childhood and adulthood are seen in homosexual men and women compared to the same sex heterosexuals. Early hormones have been suggested to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviours. Recent studies, however, have provided evidence in support of prenatal androgen exposure influencing childhood sex-typed behaviour. An example of the study is Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation. The hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are examined. The children were in the range of ages between 2.5 to 12 years. It is observed that CAH girls preferred boys toys and activities and had greater preference for boy playmates than controls. On the other hand, CAH boys did not differ significantly from controls and activity and playmate preferences were not related. From this it was concluded that early androgen has a major effect on childhood activity preferences but only a weak influence on playmate preferences. Besides that, sex segregation does not arise from sex-typed activity preferences, activity and playmate preferences may be differently predictive of sexual orientation and hormonal influences on sexual orientation are likely to be comp lex. Consequently, prospective and retrospective studies of childhood gender role behaviour reveal homosexual males to be more likely than heterosexual males in the sense of participating in girls games, to experiment with cosmetics and jewellery and to be less likely than heterosexual males to participate in sports. In the same way, lesbians analytical report shows that they were more likely than heterosexual females in the manner of participating in sports, to be called a tomboy and to be less likely than heterosexual females as in experimenting with or using cosmetics and jewellery or even to wear dresses. From reports by Bailey Zucker, it was also known that homosexual men and women played with opposite sex playmates in childhood more that did heterosexual men and women. However, the differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals may not be confined to childhood activities. For example, in another report by McCormick Witelson, it is stated that heterosexual men have higher spatial ability and lower verbal ability compared to both homosexual men and heterosexual women. Besides that, a higher rate of left-handedness has been noticed in both homosexual men and women than heterosexual comparisons. Nonetheless, it is important to note that there are a few other sex-typed behaviours not related to sexual orientation. This is identified as most homosexual men and women have typical gender identity and are similar to same sex heterosexual individuals on aspects of mating psychology related to sexual selection that show sex differences, for example, interest in uncommitted sex. These comparisons are useful because sexual orientation differences that parallel sex differences suggest that some of the factors that cause sex differences also cause differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals of the same sex. This is because some homosexual individuals are as sex-typical as most heterosexuals, there may be more than one cause of sexual orientation. On the other hand, when sexual orientation differences do not parallel sex differences, different etiologies are likely. Gonadal hormones have been hypothesized to play a main role in the development of sex-typed behaviour and sexual orientation. Thus, high levels of androgen during sensitive periods of development have been suggested to produce masculine-typical behaviour, including childhood activities, cognitive abilities, and sexual orientation directed to women, that is, male heterosexuality and female homosexuality, whereas very low levels of androgen during those periods are hypothesized to result in female typical childhood activities, cognitive abilities, and sexual orientation directed to men, that is, male homosexuality and female heterosexuality. Human sex-typed behaviour is also affected by early exposure to hormones. Thus, female participants with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who have high levels of androgen during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, have greater preference for traditionally masculine toys and activities, higher spatial ability, and greater rates of homosexual or bisexual fantasies than controls. Similarly, female participants exposed to high levels of masculinizing or defeminizing hormones as a result of maternal ingestion during pregnancy have been reported to be more aggressive and to have higher rates of homosexual or bisexual fantasies than controls. These increases in male typical behaviour which occur in the presence of female gender identity in both CAH girls and women and those with exogenous hormone exposure. Unusual hormone exposure in boys and men has complex relationships to behaviour. In relation, low androgen seems to result in reduced male typical behaviour. Male adolescents and adults with deficient androgen beginning early in life have shown reduced spatial ability compared with controls. High levels of masculinizing hormones have been associated with increased, decreased, and unchanged masculine typical behaviour. Male participants exposed to androgenizing progestin have been reported to be more aggressive than their brothers, but male participants with CAH and thus high levels of androgen generally show male typical behaviour. There are few systematic studies of sexual behaviour in men with unusual early hormone exposure, but homosexuality may be more common in men who are assumed to have low prenatal testosterone, for example, XXY men. There is evidence especially in female individuals that early hormone exposure affects both sexual orientation and some of the behaviors that are related to it, providing indirect support for the hypothesis that sexual orientation typically is influenced b
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Monday, August 19, 2019
The Concept of Information There is such a point of view that information is an abstract unit as an invariant of informational processes. Information consists of object, procedural and morphological components.We have an opportunity to consider that information consists of object and procedural components. So we have the relation-functional concept of information.Information has such attributes as syntactics, semantics and pragmatics. These attributes are relational definitions. Semantics and pragmatics are considered to be external features (characteristics) of the definite syntactics. Information may be considered as an universal property of matter (attributive concept) or as a property of self-managing (cybernetic) system (functional concept). Then we can not get a full understanding of information, universal and flexible enough. So it is necessary to widen and develop the definition of information. There are two basic ways of unification of any concept: a) abstracting, b) integration. The classical theory of information and cybernetics used the first - abstracting. It means the volume ("demanded place") expressed by the quantity of bites. It is a quantity of information. The semiotics used the second way. It means the sign system (sign), the unity of three attributes - syntactic, semantics and pragmatics. In this work integration (abstracting) concept of information is offered. For the final description, we said that information is consist of 1) object (attributive), 2) procedural (functional) and 3) morphological (structural) components. We must offer two definitions for further developing the concept of information. These are a message and a language. Language is a sign system with alphabet, vocabulary and grammar. Message is a definite construction in a definite language. Any language is an interface (means of interaction) between users (communication function) or between users and environment. Exchange of information is possible by plunge into definite surroundings - own language of this message. Any message is a set of signs without such a plunge. So information can not exist in "a pure state", without physical bearer. We also point out that information can exist as messages. Information may be extracted from messages. Thus we say object component is realized by messages, procedural component is realized by grammar, morphological is realized by material bearers. We may examine information as a unit with two components: object and procedural. Then we have a relation concept of information. It means a ratio between properties of the object, which consist of tables and charts. The second concept is a set of specific procedures. We may use a philosophical concept of information.
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