Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Discuss the role of defense attorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s in the courtroom workgroup. A defense attorney is a lawyer who provides legal representation for a person who has been arrested and charged for breaking the law or when an individual been served with a lawsuit. For example, when another individual filing the lawsuit goes after money for damages or justifiable relief of some sort. A very small portion of lawyers actually discuss that they work as criminal defense attorneys. This is because of the negative labeling assigned to the profession by American Social Forces. However defense attorneys are very important in the criminal justice system. They work to protect the innocent from being falsely convicted, and they work to protect the constitutional rights of all defendants. When a criminal defendant cannot afford to pay for the services of a private legal attorney, the United States Supreme Court requires that a defense attorney be appointed to represent the defendant. This expense is covered by taxpayers. There are three major categories of defense attorneys to help assist criminal defendants: * Private attorneys usually referred to as retained counsel.
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People become a member of a social group because of their very nature, that is, not to feel lonely, to feel secure, and to satisfy some needs such as social and self-esteem needs. Being part of a group has both positive and negative outcomes for an individual. Positive outcomes can be listed as enjoying group work, gaining new perspectives and making friends, and being more creative. On the other hand, there are some negative outcomes such as disagreements between the members of the group and losing time. One of the positive outcomes is enjoying group work. In a group work people perform their tasks quicker and in a more effective way. In a group, each person seems to be more capable. Working together provides a perfect information flow. People share their knowledge and skills with one another. By that way, people can feel themselves like a team because they are acting as a single body and are having responsibilities. Such kind of a group work provides each member with new perspectives which is a result of the exchange of ideas between group members. Therefore, they start to look from a different and a more brooder window. Involving in a social group provide opportunities for making friends. This is another positive aspect of social groups. People feel themselves better when they have more friends and worse when they do not. On this issue, (1991, p110) Goleman stated that patients who suffer from cancer and have no friends need more medical care than those who have friends. That proves the importance of the social groups in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Only through this way they can become social and enjoy lives more. Besides its positive outcomes, being part of a group has some negative outcomes as well. These are disagreements between members and wasting the valuable time. Disagreements usually exist when individuals have conflicts with the ideas of others. They want to be free-riders which means acting as a single person and do not participate in or not contribute to the common work. That creates disagreements between group members. The group work can bring inefficiency. For instance, it can continue longer and can waste the time present. The disagreements between the members of the group can also cause losing time. To sum up, all itÃ¢â¬â¢s negative and positive outcomes considered, groups play an important role in our lives even though it cause conflicts between group members and losing time. A group is a good shelter that satisfies some of the basic needs of the people involved such as social and self-esteem needs. Further more it helps people to gain new perspectives, to be more creative, and to find new friends. Overall, a group is a social institute which combines various kinds of people who are different in mind, appearance, age and gender.
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Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Civil War: compare 69 CE and 193 CE. Consider the issues of imperial Succession, the roles of the senate, military importance, and the ultimate settlement. How were they the same and different. The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. These four emperors were Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. The suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Between June of 68 and December of 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian Dynasty. This period of civil war has become emblematic of the cyclic political disturbances in the history of the Roman Empire. The military and political anarchy created by this civil war had serious repercussions, such as the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion. (The Jewish Revolt was already ongoing. )Vespasian did not meet any direct threat to his imperial power after the death of Vitellius. He became the founder of the stable Flavian dynasty that succeeded the Julio-Claudians and died of natural causes as emperor in 79. The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. The five were Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus. The year 193 opened with the murder of Commodus on New Year's Eve, 31 December 192 and the proclamation of the City Prefect Pertinax as Emperor on New Year's Day, 1 January 193. Pertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard on 28 March 193. Later that day, Didius Julianus outmaneuvered Titus Flavius Sulpicianus (Pertinax's father-in-law and also the new City Prefect) for the title of Emperor. Flavius Sulpicianus offered to pay each soldier 20,000 sestertii to buy their loyalty (eight times their annual salary; also the same amount offered by Marcus Aurelius to secure their favours in 161). Didius Julianus however offered 25,000 to each soldier to win the auction and was proclaimed Emperor by the Roman Senate on 28 March. However, three other prominent Romans challenged for the throne: Pescennius Niger in Syria, Clodius Albinus in Britain, and Septimius Severus in Pannonia. Septimius Severus marched on Rome to oust Didius Julianus and had him decapitated on 1 June 193, then dismissed the Praetorian Guard and executed the soldiers who had killed Pertinax. Consolidating his power, Septimius Severus battled Pescennius Niger at Cyzicus and Nicea in 193 and then decisively defeated him at Issus in 194. Clodius Albinus initially supported Septimius Severus believing that he would succeed him. When he realised that Severus had other intentions, Albinus had himself declared Emperor in 195 but was defeated by Septimius Severus at the Battle of Lugdunum on 19 February 197.
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Monday, July 29, 2019
Comprehensive Assessment of Dementia - Essay Example In order to develop an effective care plan for the patient, the following must be determined about the patient: Presenting Problem The nurse would collect information on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s dementia, including signs and symptoms of the disease. Moreover, the nurse should identify the aspects of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life that have been affected by dementia (Smith and Buckwalter, 2005). History Information about the events prior to the dementia, and any records that may lead to a clear picture of underlying factors should be collected. For instance, these records would help to point out if the cause of the dementia is a factor that can be controlled or if the situation cannot be reversed (Nhs.uk, 2010). Medical Status This would indicate if the patient has had any prior treatment for the condition, and if the condition has been improving, deteriorating, or has not been affected by the treatment. This would enable the nurse to decide if the patient needs alternative medication or needs to first complete the current regimen. Routine tests like haematology, thyroid function tests, biochemistry tests and serology should be used as indicators of physiological causes and results of the condition. Specific tests like memory assessment should point out the exact condition of the patient based on tests that indicate current body function; these tests include AMTS, MMSC, 3MS, and CASI (Teng and Chui, 2007). Day-to-Day Functioning This analysis helps to determine if the patient needs further supportive care in addition to medication, or medication is enough to get the patient to live independently and productively. For instance, the patient should be assessed for inconsistencies in cognitive function including poor judgment, memory lapses and loss of reasoning capacity (Gleason, 2003). Support A patient needs support from family and friends, religious and community groups, and from social care service institutions. The nurse has to determine if these stakeholders support t he patient as is necessary to aid in the dementia control efforts (Shub and Kunik, 2009). The nurse can then incorporate participation of family and friends in order to accelerate and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of intervention measures. Evidence of Abuse or Neglect The patient should be assessed for any evidence of mistreatment, including identification of the nature of the mistreatment, if possible (Karlawish and Clark, 2003). This is important in that the patient is taken to an environment that does not expose them to abuse or neglect, which may worsen the condition. Detailed Care Plan to Guide JackÃ¢â¬â¢s Care Interventions for patients with dementia are focused on three main pathologies of the condition; they include interventions for cognitive disorders, intervention for non-cognitive disorders, and interventions for emotional disorders. One or a combination of these interventions should be used depending on the condition of the patient. Interventions for Cognit ive Symptoms These are divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions; depending on the condition of the patient and underlying functions, the latter are the more recommended of these interventions.
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Sunday, July 28, 2019
Unit 8 social problems Duscussion - Research Paper Example he lower socio-economic classes are more likely to get affected by depression and anxiety ultimately leading into higher chances of heart diseases (Tuckett, 20003). However, many human service providers can help such people by setting up psychological counseling forum at their workplaces on monthly basis. This can also be an open service for all the citizens of America especially people who are working on a lower pay scale (Henslin, 2011). Also education can play a very vital role in minimizing heart attacks. It is possible if families can share healthy lifestyle and keeping a check on checking cholesterol levels. Internet has provided a great deal of help to the families where the members are provided with significant information regarding relationship of heart diseases and its causes. This will allow the families to co-ordinate and follow a healthy lifestyle. This will also allow them to learn the ways in which they can make their environment less stressful and free from anxiety (Smyth,
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Saturday, July 27, 2019
K-12 budget cuts in california - Research Paper Example The people of the state feel as though their voices should be heard if budget cuts are needed and where would be the best possible place to cut. In the case of California budget cuts in regards to k-12 education this is not so. The majorities of the people are not in favor of the proposed budget cuts and are not afraid to say so. Voices are heard from newspapers, newsreels, high offices and education systems themselves. Why are budget cuts proposed? Where do the deciding factors come from? In whoÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest? These are the underlying questions to the foundation of this paper. Proposed state budget cuts are looked upon as evils by the people. Budget cuts means jobs lost, jobs lost means hard times, unwanted struggles and hopeful prayers. Budget cuts means some organization that has served the people will not be able to do so any longer in the original capacity. Budget cuts are often times proposed in place of tax increases. Although tax increases would usually only affect t he higher income families. The government relies on the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s elected leaders to lead during the time of economic downturn and budget cuts. The deciding factors in budget cuts are sometimes based on the efficient use of the remaining and less spending of the variables involved. In the state of California one of the areas involving budget cuts is in education. Specifically covered here will be grades k-12. Education budget cuts mean massive layoffs for teachers among other educational expense loss, such as purchasing of books. The impact and acceptation of the budget is described here in an article from Targeted News Service (2011), Despite positive economic messages surrounding President Obama's recent State of the Union address, America's 14,000 school districts will remain vulnerable for the next half decade. Nationally, forty states currently project budget gaps totaling over $140 billion for the next fiscal year. Even worse, states will have to try to fill the gaps with nearly $40 billion less in federal stimulus funds than they had last year--creating what many officials are calling the "ARRA cliff," the sudden loss of billions of dollars in federal money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Looking even further down the road, twenty-four states already face a combined gap of $66 billion for fiscal year 2013. When it comes to schools, these gaps are significant because state dollars account for almost half, 48.3 percent, of K-12 education funding. In California, the budget picture is grim. The state faces ongoing structural budget gaps of over $20 billion a year through 2014, with debt levels currently topping out over $25 billion for this fiscal year. Governor Brown's proposed budget slashes higher education funding by over $1 billion, or nearly 20 percent, and his promise to avoid cuts to K-12 education hinges on a tax extension vote in June. If voters reject the tax extension, school districts could face an additional $4 to $5 bill ion in cuts before classes begin. All of this comes on top of the 14.5 percent hit K-12 funding has taken since 2007. Listed above are the hard facts the state of California is facing. Are the budget cuts necessary because the government failed in its duties or is the state? For either answer there are individuals who have come up with answers on how to prevent future cuts in areas that are desperately needed. The dropout rate is not decreasing, the need for our
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Friday, July 26, 2019
Build and sustain an innovative work environment - Assignment Example There are three approaches of developing an innovation system for small businesses. The approaches are systems review, systems design and systems implementation. Systems review entails the adequate understanding of the present innovation state in the business organization. The review is conducted through several steps. Analysis is conducted on the informal and the formal processes. It is also necessary to understand the attitudes that the business stakeholders have towards the innovation process. The attitudes are effectively determined through interviewing employees, management staffs, customers and financiers. During the review process, it is necessary to identify the resources and the requirements needed, in terms of staffing. The main outputs required must also be adequately identified (Victor & Greg 2012). Systems design entails integrating the innovation system interfaces with the present process and strategies. This is necessary for enhancing the continuity of the information, and the successful delivery of projects dealing with innovation. The design process gives the business the innovative systems model which interfaces with the present systems and processes. Systems implementation entails the development of adequate understanding of the systems and processes that are presently available, and that effectively suits the business requirements. Implementation systems analysis is important because; it adequately integrates the new systems with present processes and programs. The implementation analysis also develops the complete implementation plans for the business innovation system (Bruce 2005). The innovation tool analyzed in this paper is referred to as the i2B Performer. The innovation system entails an internet and intranet platform which allows for the idea and opportunity illustration, categorization, development, launch and evaluation. The innovation system has a set of customizable innovation reports and templates. The innovation system,
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